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Title: 臺灣稻作品種的演化過程及分布趨勢
Other Titles: The Evolutionary and Distributional Tendance of the Varieties of Rice (Oryza Sativa Linn.) in Taiwan
Authors: 任茹
Issue Date: Nov-1997
Publisher: 地理學系
Department of Geography, NTNU
Abstract: 本文探討影響稻作收穫量基本要素之一的稻作品種問題(Varieties of rice),並以臺灣島為例,研究自秈稻 (subsp. indica) 轉為稉稻 (subsp. japonica) 的演化過程,及最近 15 年的主要品種分布趨勢。由文獻探討及野外實察工作,發現臺灣稻作品種的演化,數世紀以來歷經六個時期:即野生稻時期、南島語族引用陸稻時期、荷蘭人由海外引入稻種時期、漢人化育在來稻時期、以及日本人引入稉稻時期和 1945 年以來的稉、秈稻並重時期。其中,最近的兩期是有計畫地作品種改良,各品種在其生態適應傾向的先決條件下,呈區域分布特性。若以 1980 年代以來的全臺主要稻作品種分布趨勢為例,約可分為三類型: 14 %的品種屬於全島擴散型,如臺農 67 及 70 號,臺南 5 及 9 號;41 %的品種屬於含源地 (其品種改良場所在地 ) 的擴散型,如稉稻類的臺中 189 號、臺農 62 及 68 號、高雄 139 及 141 號等,皆為自源地向東擴散;糯、秈類的新竹糯 4 號、臺中生來 1 號,則由源地向南部擴散;至於栽培地僅環繞源地附近者佔 44 %,如臺北 306 及 309 號稉稻分布於北部,臺農秈 12 及 14 等秈稻主要分布於嘉南,而臺東 27 及 28 號等稉稻則分布於東部。但 1990 年代後,有新趨勢呈現,以全臺一期稻作及宜蘭、彰化、屏東平原的稉稻為例,顯示正行品種更替,其擴散現象為:目前仍屬全島型者有臺農 67 號;含源地並擴散至其他地區者,有高雄 142 號及臺稉 2、3、8 號;至於僅分布於單一平原區的稻作品種,皆為以「臺稉命名的新種, 如宜蘭平原的臺稉10 號、彰化平原的臺稉 9 號及屏東平原的臺稉 5、11 及 12 號。
This paper explores varieties of rice as one of the fundamental determinants of rice harvest in Taiwan. Specificaly it examines, as a case study, the evolutionary process in a transition of Taiwanese rice from subsp. indica to subsp. japonica, a process manifested by change in spatial distribution of the major rice species in the latest 15 years. Through field work and library research, we identified six phases for the transition of Taiwanese rice:from the natural growth phase through transplanting by indigenous people, Dutch, Han Chinese and Japanese to the recent periods of planned species improvement. We also traced the diffusion process to the ecological adaptation of planned species. Threes diffusion patterns since 1980 have been clear: one being island wide, one along particular direction from the original location of cultivation, and the third to adjacent districts. New trends have appeared lately, however, within each diffusion pattern, certain species have succeeded the others. Both environment and economical factors explain.
Other Identifiers: 849A6BEC-9C96-D9B2-8F86-4B2E5C417AC4
Appears in Collections:地理研究

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