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|Other Titles:||Reconstruction of temperature, precipitation and weather characteristics over the Yangtze River Delta Area in Ming Dynasty|
Department of Geography, NTNU
|Abstract:||本研究分析中國歷史文獻中關於天氣現象之描述，重建明代（1368-1644 年）長江三角洲的氣候狀況，包括乾濕與溫度序列特徵，及颱風、龍捲風與冰雹等特殊天氣之時空分布特徵。乾濕等級及冬夏溫度指數可整合成四個時期：第一時期（1368-1519 年）乾濕交替、冬溫冷暖交替而夏溫偏暖；第二時期（1520-1559 年）偏乾而冬夏溫皆較高；第三時期（1560-1624 年）偏濕而冬夏溫前期暖後期冷，第四時期（1625-1643 年）強乾而冬夏溫皆偏低。第二與第四時期同為偏乾，但兩者存在差異，第二時期為暖乾，第四時期為冷乾。整體而言，長江三角洲在明代較現代是更為寒冷的，當時甚至有幾年夏天出現降雪現象的相關記載。颱風、龍捲風及冰雹發生次數，平均10 年分別有2.7、0.7 及2.9 次，有記錄年發生數最大值是4、3 及3 次，主要集中在國曆6-9 月（農曆5-8 月）的夏秋季，國曆6-7 月（農曆5-6 月）的夏季及國曆3-5 月（農曆2-4 月）的春夏季。空間分布上，颱風發生次數最多與地理位置靠近沿海、長江、黃浦江及太湖及都市開發程度較高有關；龍捲風好發於沿海、長江及黃浦江沿岸地區較多，而太湖周圍地區較少。冰雹發生數以太湖周圍地區較高，而沿海地區較低。|
This study is aimed to reconstruct the climatic and weather characteristics of Ming Dynasty (the year of 1368-1644) in the Yangtze River Delta Area through analyzing the weather descriptions in the historical documents. We focus on temporal variation of temperature and precipitation, and spatio-temporal variations of typhoons, tornadoes and hails. The combination of temperature and precipitation characteristics can be summarized as follows. (1) The 1st period (1368-1519): a warmer summer temperature, a strong variation between precipitation and winter temperature. (2) The 2nd period (1520-1559): less rainfall, warmer summer and winter temperatures. (3) The 3rd period (1560-1624): more rainfall, warmer in the early stage and colder in the late stage for summer and winter temperatures. (4) The 4th period (1625-1643): much less rainfall, colder summer and winter temperatures. There were drier climates during the 2nd and 4th periods, however, the latter has a stronger intensity than the former. The climate is warm and dry in the 2nd period, and cold and dry in the 4th period. Overall, this area was colder in the Ming Dynasty than the present time because the snow records could be found in summer for several years. Typhoon, tornado and tornado have a frequency of 2.7, 0.7 and 2.9 for every ten years, a maximum occurrence of 4, 3 and 3, and occur mostly during June-September (summer and fall), June-July (summer) and March-May (spring and summer) in the solar calendar, respectively. Typhoon tends to occur in the areas along the sea, rivers and lake, and with higher urban development. Tornado tends to occur in the areas along the sea and rivers rather than the Taihu Lake. Hail occurred mostly in the areas around the Taihu Lake and less along the coastline area.
|Appears in Collections:||地理研究|
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