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Title: 唐代特殊官人的告身給付
Other Titles: The Appointment to Specific Mandarinate in Tang Dynasty: The reinterpretation to the "Miscellaneous Statute, Tiansheng Statutes" in the Thirteenth Tang Ordinance
Authors: 賴亮郡
Issue Date: Jun-2010
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學歷史學系
Department of History, NTNU
Abstract: 《天聖令. 雜令》唐1 3條規定告身授予的對象有兩類: 一類是勳官、三衛、諸軍校尉以下的主帥, 為令文所規範的主要對象; 另一類是諸蕃首領、歸化人、迓遠人、遙授官四種, 其人數遠較前類官員為少, 不是令文規範的主體。其中, 「迓遠人」最為特殊, 是邊境因涉外事務的急迫性而臨時權置的外事官員,所以令文的注文特別規定其告身的付送方式。本條令文的主旨, 是強調告身必須由中央書寫; 自寫告身只是附帶規定,而且有其條件限制,並非令文強調的重點。這是因為大曆(766~779)以後, 曾一度任由諸道自寫告身, 朝廷為了收回告身書寫權, 才頒定本條令文, 宣示告身仍由中央寫定。因此, 本條令文可視為唐朝中央想要重新支配地方的努力。推測本條並非開元時期的令文, 而是形成或修定於貞元1 1年(795)以後,反映出唐代中後期,朝廷與地方為爭奪告身書寫權而較勁、妥協的痕跡。
“Miscellaneous Statute, Tiansheng Statutes", the thirteenth Tang ordinance set appointment regulations for two main categories. The first category includes “Xunguan"(勳官), “Sanui"(三衛), and officers ranking under lieutenant. The three kinds of people are the main content in the Statute. The Second category includes four kinds of people:state leaders, naturalized citizens, “Iauan"(迓遠) people, and “Iaoshou Officers"(遙授官). The second category is far less than the first one and is not the main content in the statute. Among the four kinds of people, the most special is “Iauan" (迓遠)people who are temporary agents dealing with urgent affairs in diplomatic relations. Therefore, the statute especially regulates their appointment. The main purpose of this statute is to emphasize that appointments should be written by the official administration. Privately written appointments are only subordinate and conditional. Once every “Dao"(道)could write appointments, but since Tang Dali(唐大曆)(66-779A.D.), the central government withdrew the power of appointment writing, and enforced this ordinance that appointments shall be written by the official administration. This statute can be seen as a central government’s attempt to manipulate the local feuds. The assumed time of this statute is not in the early Tang Dynasty, but is formed or amended after 795A.D. The statute indicates a tug of war for appointment writing power between the central government and the local feuds.
Other Identifiers: C5E2F1A0-269F-8736-D8F5-1785CAACC716
Appears in Collections:臺灣師大歷史學報

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