Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/77345300/19314
Title: 李鴻章政術憑藉之機緣網路
Other Titles: The Lucky Situational Coincident in Li Hung-Chang’s Political Career
Authors: 王爾敏
Wang, Erh Min
Issue Date: Jun-2012
Publisher: 國立臺灣師範大學歷史學系
Department of History,National Taiwan Normal University
Abstract: 在晚清政治舞台李鴻章是一位重要人物,世有論者,不一而足。李鴻章生平行事,雖是當國重鎮,却非一帆風順,雖受清廷倚重,却非掌握大權。故評論人物,自不能輕下論斷,當須進而考察,建立真知。蓋李氏雖是一代偉人,所涉政事亦繁駁複雜,勢須就此一代宏觀細考可稍得澄清。本文就李氏起家科名,躋身高位,乃是一路崎嶇,而在潰敗傾覆之後,隨外在機緣,憑個人才識眼光,而得掌握進身良機,始能獲致後日成就地位。乃能見到無論雄才大略,飽腹經綸,而外在機緣仍是十分重要。李鴻章中進士,又選為翰林,任事作官,此是根本資履。若在承平,久在京朝,前程自是光明。所謂金馬玉堂、仕宦坦途,憑其才學可晉至高位。世人未料,1850 年太平軍廣西起義,迅速打進長江流域,數省受擾而終打下金陵,建為天京,凡江左、湖南、湖北、江西、江蘇、安徽俱受太平軍襲劫,清廷除派旗、綠營大軍進剿,又於1853 年令京中官吏回故鄉召兵勇隨官兵助戰。李鴻章即以翰林院編修遣其回鄉帶兵助陣。須知凡此官員受命回鄉,兵須自召,餉須自籌,主要奉聖旨,可以在家鄉召兵徵餉。曾國藩奉命練兵,亦不出此背景,大抵此類文官練兵保鄉,成敗全看才幹毅力,實僅有曾國藩苦撐未敗。李鴻章召兵不能多,籌餉難足用,雖親戰陣,有勝亦有負。而終於餉竭兵潰,喪其所有。苦戰五、六年,完全歸白費,家宅被焚毀。終在1858 年遁避江西、南昌。李鴻章自是空拳孤注,於1859 年初投效曾國藩湘軍,任其幕僚。其時湘軍親敗,大將李續賓戰死,國藩六弟國華同殉。湘軍喪敗之餘,正逢逆境鴻章來投,却是彼此相濡以沫,共嘗甘苦。曾國藩帶兵八年,兵未潰,志未懈,終在1860 年清軍主力在金陵潰敗,太平軍乘勢席捲江、浙。朝廷不能不重用曾氏湘軍,授曾國藩為兩江總督欽差大臣,自是湘軍得以發展,而李鴻章亦隨之受到重用。曾國藩為規復江蘇失土,乃保荐李鴻章為江蘇巡撫,由道員直升巡撫,乃是一步晉身疆吏。湘淮軍合力平定太平軍之後,接著北方近畿各省捻軍勢力擴大,並在1865 年在山東圍攻主帥僧格林沁並加以殺死,朝廷震驚,終於先後任曾國藩、李鴻章為欽差大臣,乃李鴻章平定東捻西捻,李氏得任協辦大學士,曾國藩調任直隸總督。未料1870 年發生天津教案、法國駐天津領事被殺,法國、英國、比國、義國教士修女多有被殺,法國聲言派兵來華作戰。清廷緊急促調李鴻章帶淮軍來保衛京畿,並調曾國藩回任兩江,調李鴻章任直隸總督。本來中法可能開戰,但西方發生驚動世界之普法戰爭,使法國無力東顧,李氏到津,遂以和平方式解決天津教案,自此坐鎮北洋,清廷付予承擔外交事務兼管南北洋沿海沿江防務,其名位僅是地方總督,而責任須顧國防外交。當此列強環伺,二十五年間掬盡心血於為日,對法、對俄、對英之各次重大交涉,最後則對八國聯軍,亦自是鞠躬盡瘁,死而後已。李鴻章在同治九年(1870)即覺悟到中國必須變法,但只與丁日昌在信中討論,不敢向朝廷建議。清廷只令其看守大門,有重責而無實權,想做之事復多掣肘。對外敗辱,豈能歸咎李氏一人?
Li Hung-Chang was a prominent character in the political field in the late Ch’ing. This article deals with his rise which is not so smooth after he was defeated by the Taiping Army. However, by meeting advantageous external chance and owning personal insight, he earned good fortune and high achievement at last. Therefore, chance plays an important role in his official career. Uprising in Guangxi in 1850, the Taiping Army expanded quickly, disturbed several provinces and occupied Nanking as capital. Li accepted imperial order to train army in his hometown. He must conscript soldiers and raise salary to defend his native place. However, he was failed by insufficient manpower and money. Li casted the dice to rely on Tseng Kuo-Fan’s Hunan Army and assumed as his staff. At that time, Hunan Army was frustrated also. The Government’s Armysuffered a defeat in Nanking. The Court must depend on Tseng Kuo-Fan. The Hunan Army could develop further by Tseng’s position as Commissioner and Governor of Jiangsu, Anhui and Jiangxi. Li was recommended as Governorgeneral of Jiangsu. The Nien Army extended their force in Northern provinces and killed the commander-in-chief Senglinxin. While Li was appointed to expedition the East Nien and the West Nien, Tseng was assigned as Governor of Chi-li. As the Tienjin Accident happened in 1870, France acclaimed to send army to China. The Court moved the Huai Army to defend the capital in a hurry and appointed Li as Governor of Chi-li. France couldn’t resort to forces in the East because the bursting out of the Franco-Prussian War. Li solved the accident in peace.
URI: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw//handle/77345300/19314
Other Identifiers: B97F2F0A-E933-D210-D07F-D643A576D2E0
Appears in Collections:臺灣師大歷史學報

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