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Title: 從常備消防手到特設消防署
Other Titles: From Regular Firefighters to Fire Agency-The Establishment and Development of Regular Fire Fighting System during Japanese Colonial Rule in Taiwan
Authors: 蔡秀美
Issue Date: 1-Jun-2009
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學歷史硏究所
National Taiwan Normal University Department of History
Abstract: 本文旨在探討日治時期臺灣常備消防制度創建的背景、發展過程及其歷史意義。指出1910年代中期起臺灣的義勇消防組織已無法滿足社會對消防效率的要求,加以內地延長主義政策的展開,1922年臺北消防組首先創設常備消防手,臺中、臺南、基隆、嘉義等都市亦相繼創設,由是開啟臺灣近代常備消防的序幕。其後,各地常備消防編制繼續擴大,常備消防人員的身分和待遇亦獲得改善。1943年,臺灣總督府進而創立消防署,專門職司消防事務,以警察擔任消防署的幹部,並將常備消防人員納入此一機關的基層編制,臺灣近代常備消防制度於焉成立。日治時期此一制度始終未能全面普及,加以常備消防人員絕大多數是日本人,臺灣人為數甚少。惟不可否認的,其已為戰後臺灣消防制度的建置和發展奠定基礎。
This article aims to discuss the establishment and development of regular firefighting system during Japanese Colonial Rule in Taiwan and its historical significance. The regular firefighters were found originated from a private organization 'Fire Brigade' owing to the greater social demand already incapable by the original volunteer-based system since the mid-1910's and the practice of Motherland Extension Policy. Regular firefighters were first established in Taipei in 1922 and successively by a number of major cities including Taichung, Tainan, Keelung and Chiayi. The social status and welfare of firefighters increasingly improved along with the growing recruitment of Fire Brigade during the following years. It was until 1943 that Taiwan government-general established the Fire Agency, which employed policemen as the chief executive and took in the firefighters from Fire Brigade as their staff. This is the beginning of regular fight fighting system in the public sector during the colonial Taiwan. However, the Fire Agency did not prevail in Taiwan except in Taipei, Kaohsiung and Keelung. In addition, most of regular firefighters were Japanese, while Taiwanese were only few. Despite of this, the Fire Agency paved the ground for further development of firefighting system in the postwar Taiwan.
Other Identifiers: 8B4E94C3-8D8B-5797-79E9-DA7080F48DEE
Appears in Collections:臺灣師大歷史學報

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