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|Other Titles:||The Imperial Examination System on Translation in Ch’ing Dynasty|
National Taiwan Normal University Department of History
|Abstract:||中國以考試選拔官員的科舉制度，自隋、唐以降相沿不替；在清朝，不但有賡續明朝的科舉考試，開放旗人和漢人同場競爭，更有專為旗人而設，且極具滿洲特色的繙譯科考。雍正元年（1723），雍正皇帝為鼓勵旗人學習滿文，特仿科舉之制，考試繙譯秀才、舉人、進士；經乾隆朝初期的調整，明確規定考試範圍、應試資格、錄取人數，制度遂趨於完備。惟乾隆十九年（1754），朝廷以繙譯科考成效不彰，且與中央部院衙門文職人員繙譯考試疊床架屋， 故中止繙譯鄉試、會試， 直到乾隆四十三年（1778）始漸次恢復。繙譯科考在嘉慶、道光年間出現重要變化：一是繙譯科考分為三級的考試體系趨於完備，並朝常態性發展；一是開放八旗駐防旗人就地應考繙譯秀才、舉人，使其免於往返順天府奔波之苦，期間舉凡試務流程、防弊措施等等，也幾經修正與改良，故而能為咸豐、同治、光緒三朝遵循。一如科舉考試，繙譯科考亦以儒家經典為考試範圍，秀才考試漢文繙譯滿文一篇，舉人、進士另須加考滿文作文。東洋文庫藏有繙譯秀才考試題目和部院衙門繙譯考試題目，中央研究院和國立故宮博物院則藏有繙譯鄉試、會試題目，可藉以了解此一特殊科舉制度的考試內容。|
Since the dynasties of Sui and T’ang, the Chinese governments had adopted the same system of imperial examinations in selecting governmental officers. Following the exam systems of the Ming dynasty, the Ch’ing government not only admitted the bannermen and Han people to take the same exam but set the imperial examination on translation with the Manchu characters for the bannermen. For the purpose to encourage the bannermen to learn Manchu language, Emperor Yung-cheng, imitating the system of imperial examination, held the examination on translation for those talented hsiu-ts’ai, chu-jen, and chin-shih in 1732, which is the first year of his imperial throne. After the adjustments made in the early period of Ch’ien-lung: making clear provisions in the scope of examination, qualities for admission, and enrollment numbers, the system became complete. Yet in 1754, owing to the ineffectiveness of the examination as well as its overlapping with the translation examination held by the central government, the imperial government terminated the provincial and metropolitan examinations on translation till 1778. During the periods of Chiach’ing and Tao-kuang, there were some important changes made in the imperial examination on translation. First, the examination system that had been divided into three levels was then much more complete than ever; second, to save the toil of traveling, the eight-banner examinees were allowed to attend the exams for selecting hsiu-ts’ai and chu-jen in their garrisons; moreover, issues such as the procedures of examinations and regulations for preventing cheating were also corrected and improved, which could then be followed by the coming emperors Hsien-fen, T’ung-chih and Kuang-hsu. Just as in the imperial examination, the Confucian classics were the scope of exam on translation: in the exam for hsiu ts’ai, a translation essay from Chinese to Manchu language was required, and in the exams for chu-jen and chin-shih, a composition in Manchu langua
|Appears in Collections:||臺灣師大歷史學報|
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