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Title: 日治時期臺灣總督府高等農林學校之造林學研究—以林學科學生畢業論文為中心
Other Titles: Silviculture Study Developed by the Taiwan Higher Agriculture and Forestry School during Japanese Colonial Era Focus on the Graduates of Forestry Department’s Theses
Authors: 謝明如
Hsieh, Ming-ju
Issue Date: Jun-2013
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學歷史硏究所
National Taiwan Normal University Department of History
Abstract: 臺灣總督府高等農林學校係日治時期臺灣唯一的高等林業教育機關,本文旨在利用該校學生的畢業論文,探討其造林學之研究趨勢與特色。初步探討顯示,該校的造林學研究,在地理上以臺灣為主,研究對象偏重臺灣及南洋產之有用樹種,其核心目標係以臺灣為基地發展熱帶林業。研究課題與研究方法受到社會環境、國家需求及指導教授之個人偏好等因素影響而呈現階段性差異。該校成立之初,早期官行、民行造林,林木生長已有相當年數, 其林相正有待調查, 以瞭解實際的造林成績並提出改進之道。因此,首任造林學教師金森貞吉所指導之論文以臺灣各造林地之實地考察居多,其內容經常就考察過程中所發現之缺失提出頗具實用價值之建議;1932 年以降,造林學課程改由青木繁擔任,此時日本的國際地位轉趨孤立,在臺發展熱帶林業之需求更加急迫,加以青木原有建立熱帶殖產學知識系統之想法,由是,所指導的造林學論文轉而專攻熱帶林木研究,尤其是針對臺灣原生植物相思樹從事系統性的發芽與生育試驗,闡明相思樹最適當的灌水量、播種時期與栽種密度,成為此一時期該校造林學研究之主要特色;1937 年起,造林學改由田添元教授,其運用在北海道帝國大學從事溫度對寒帶針葉樹種子發芽生育影響及植物根系之研究經驗,指導學生解明柚木、竹類等臺灣及南洋產有用樹種之生長適溫及其根系形態,呈現臺灣與北海道林學研究之關連性;1939 年以降,配合國策與總督府林業試驗所之要求,研究對象偏重與戰時物資相關之熱帶林木,惟依然延續重視植物根系與生長適溫之研究。無疑的,臺灣高農之造林學研究有助於總督府掌握及開拓臺灣林業資源;同時,其詳細調查臺灣各造林地或各樹種之造林概況,並釐清多種臺灣及南洋產有用樹種之生長特性,對於臺灣造林學基礎之奠定,實有不可忽視之重要性。
The Taiwan Higher Agriculture and Forestry School(臺灣總督府高等農林學校) is the only higher forestry school during Japanese Colonial Era. Based on the School’s graduate theses, this article investigates the direction and features of their sylviculture study. In the school’s teething phase, they focused on the specific geography of Taiwan, figuring out the kinds of useful tree species for Taiwan from Southeastern Asia. Their major purpose was to test Taiwan serving as the main base to develop tropical forest industry. This article argues that factors such as social milieu, the requirement of the Japanese state, and the personal favor of academic supervisors, all together affected and varied research topics and methods in four different periods. At the first stage, researchers of the School investigated the existing official and private forestation which had run for years. They accordingly gave advices to reshape the forests. The theses supervised by Kanemori Sadakichi, the first director of sylviculture department, were mostly of this sort, focusing on the survey of plantations in Taiwan, and giving practical suggestions such as shortcomings found in the field work. After 1932, Aoki Shige became the director of sylviculture department. At this time, the Japanese Empire was gradually isolated from international society, so the demand of developing tropical forest industry in Taiwan became urgent. Baring this in mind, together with his own ideas regarding a system of colonial tropical forest, Aoki had supervised theses, which shifted the focus on tropical trees, especially the systematic experiments of germination and reproduction on the Formosa Acacia. These theses had figured out the most suitable irrigation amounts, the seeding timing and density of planting. And it became the main feature of the school’s sylviculture research during this time. From 1937, the succeeding director was Tazoe Moto. He used his research experience of how the temperature affects the seeds’ reproduc
Other Identifiers: 7B010461-3B71-312D-3004-892DE664298A
Appears in Collections:臺灣師大歷史學報

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