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|Other Titles:||The School System and Translation Education of theBannermen in the Ch’ing Dynasty|
National Taiwan Normal University Department of History
|Abstract:||滿洲入主中國並欲久居之，必須面對如何進行有效統治與保持民族特質的雙重考驗，八旗學校的設置，以及繙譯教育的推動，便是因應統治需求和鞏固政權的產物。清朝旗學的創設始於順治朝，係依循漢族國子監的形式，專供八旗子弟學習滿文、蒙文或漢文、繙譯、騎射等科目，故而是不失滿洲特色的官學教育制度；經過康熙朝的發展，形成學生來源特定、設在特定區域、具有補充作用等三種形態。國家為不同階層、各個駐地的旗人興辦學校， 使其普遍有接受教育的機會，並施以定期與不定期的考課；對擔任教習者，從揀選、任職到滿期，亦有諸多規範，期能確保子弟的學習品質，雖然實施成效不盡理想，仍能看出皇帝對旗人教育問題的關心。另一方面，旗學的教材都譯自漢文典籍，無論其形式為滿文本、蒙文本、滿漢合璧本或滿蒙合璧本， 其知識基礎與漢族傳統的經、史教育相同，遂不可避免地使漢族的思維模式與價值取向滲入旗人群體之中。至於旗學能否造就堪用的繙譯人才，雖然文獻中記載旗人清語、繙譯荒疏的情形所在多有，其中實涉及教育制度流於形式、選才制度出現弊端等外在因素，以及子弟學習態度、旗人仕宦心態等內在因素的交互作用，而受影響的程度當屬因人而異的個案問題。|
As the Manchu came to dominate China and with the ambition for longterm governance, they had to face the dual quest of how to implement efficientdominating measures as well as to maintain their ethnic features. To cater for the needs of dominion and consolidation of regime, they established schools for thebannermen and promoted translation education. The system of Bannerman schools, which had started in Shun-chi period and then followed the pattern ofthe Han imperial college, provided the eight banners with opportunities to learn languages, such as Manchu, Mongoloan or Chinese, translation, archery, and soon; hence, it was an official education system of Manchu features. Proceeding during K’ang-hsi period, the system had developed into three patterns: particularsources of students, specific areas and effective function of supplement. The government established schools for the bannermen coming from different socialstatus and regions, making her people have the opportunities to accept education, while rules concerning instructor selections, periods of duty and expirations werealso strictly defined, for the purpose to guarantee the quality of learning.Although the results were less than adequate, the emperors’ concerns ofeducation were obvious. On the other hand, all the textbooks for the bannermen were translation versions of Chinese classics, it was inevitable that the Han waysof thinking and value judgments would permeate through the bannermen as they used the same classics and historiography as in the Han tradition, no matter whatversions—the Manchu edition, the Mongolian edition, the Manchu-Han edition,or even the Manchu-Mongolian edition—they adopted. According to the records,the bannermen’s performances in learning languages and doing translation works are not satisfying, and yet these conditions could be related to the defects in education system and ways of selecting elites as well as the interactions between the youths’ learning attitudes and the bannermen’s
|Appears in Collections:||臺灣師大歷史學報|
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