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|Other Titles:||An Image of Chinese from the American Viewpoint|
National Taiwan Normal University Department of History
|Abstract:||19 世紀中葉以後，中國面臨內憂（乾旱天災）外患（對外戰爭失利），民不聊生，正逢此刻，美國西岸因為發現金礦及計畫修築鐵路，需要大批的勞工，遠在東方的廣東人聽到招募華工訊息，紛紛冒著橫渡太平洋的危險及思鄉的情懷，遠赴美國追尋淘金夢想，並期待早日衣錦還鄉，落葉歸根。在美國，華工辛勤工作，不敢有絲毫的怠慢，因為風俗及語言不同，又深怕被同化，只能在美國主流社會的邊緣從事起粗重的勞力工作。然而因為勤奮努力賺錢，卻因此佔有美國其他族群的工作機會，引起排斥，進而招致歧視，最後在輿論及壓力下，1882 年美國國會通過劃時代的「排華法案」，限制華工入境美國，從此斷絕華人返鄉探親的機會。而住在美國境內的華人從此受盡屈辱及歧視將近半世紀。因為美國的排華及白人對華人文化不瞭解，華人在美國境內，舉凡食、衣、住、行、育、樂等各方面，都被美國白人以極其諷刺、醜化的方式予以詆毀、屈辱、甚至扭曲。1890年代， 美國報章雜誌流行一種藉著漫畫、圖片呈現一種對時事評論的形式，本論文即透過美國國會圖書館等提供的漫畫、圖片及照片，對19 世紀中葉至20 世紀初期，亦即排華法案施行期間，美國白人對居留在美國境內華人的形象誤解，甚至扭曲醜化的意象作一探討。|
After mid-19th century, China faced wars and poverty, and the Chinese people couldn't live in peace. During this time, gold mine was found in the Western America and the Central Pacific Railroad was planned to build requiring lots of laborers from foreign countries. When the infonnation was spread to Canton, many Cantonese risked their life crossing the Pacific Ocean to America. They hoped to pursue the American dreams gaining much money and going back to their hometown as soon as possible. Though Chinese came to America with the promise of work, they subsisted on low wages and labored for long and tedious hours under difficult conditions without complaint. In the 1870's, the nation's prosperity began to crumble. The mining industry slowed to a crawl. The completion of the Transcontinental Railroad put 30,000 men out of work. Migrants to the West in search of small tracts of land for fanning were rebuffed and angered by the exorbitant prices charged by the railroad companies. As the economy declined, demagogues arose in the Western States, anxious to galvanize the unrest and near panic of the populace into a political force. The main targets of their attacks were the mining companies, the railroads and the Chinese working men. The difference in color, language, customs and life styles made the Chinese obvious scapegoats. Even their industriousness and resourcefulness, their work habits and no-aggressiveness, so often praised in the past, were now seen as threats to the American working class. The major political parties, both national and local, built into their platfonns of the demand that “The Chinese Must Go." A decade of violence followed. The Chinese were subjected to insults, stoning, bearings, burning, and riots ended in murder, first in California, and then the violence was spread to other states. Finally, the U.S. Congress limited the Chinese workers to entry into American, and then passed the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. This bill broke off Chinese retur
|Appears in Collections:||臺灣師大歷史學報|
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