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Title: 滿洲親貴與清初政治
Other Titles: Manchu Aristocracy and Politics in the Early Ch'ing Dynasty: Case Study of the Hešeri Family
Authors: 葉高樹
Issue Date: Jun-2010
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學歷史學系
Department of History, NTNU
Abstract: 清初的政權結構, 一方面是以宗室王公、異姓重臣共同組成的親貴集團為骨幹, 仍維持著以血緣關係為中心的氏族政治的特徵; 另一方面,則隨著汗的權力逐漸集中, 又朝向集權專制的皇權發展。當統治者嘗試擴張皇權, 勢必破壞既有的政治傳統, 亦即皇權政治與氏族政治的互動和消長, 影響著政局的穩定與否, 也是觀察清初政治變遷的重要關鍵。在諸多滿洲親貴之中, 都英額地方赫舍里家族因居住在多元族群交匯處, 以多元的語文能力崛起, 並在協調早期的滿、蒙關係中, 扮演重要的角色。長期以來, 赫舍里家族多擔任皇帝親信侍從的職務, 以效忠皇權作為唯一的立場與選擇, 故第一代、第二代的成員希福、索尼叔姪在鬥爭激烈的政局中, 幾經沉浮仍能屹立不搖。尤其索尼歷經皇權形成、宗室攝政、皇帝親政、親貴輔政等局勢的變動, 始終堅持擁護皇權的信念, 故能因忠而貴,因貴而親, 一躍而躋身后族, 將家族的權勢與地位推向高峰。當皇權政治確立與皇權日益高漲的趨勢下, 以索額圖為核心的第三代成員或因驕縱的仕宦態度, 或因競逐權位的野心, 不可避免地與皇權發生衝突, 最終付出家族政治事業徹底崩解的沉重代價。
The political power during the early Ch'ing consisted of the royal families, important colleagues with different clans, remaining the characteristic of clan politics based on kinsmanship; on the other hand, with the centralization of the Han's power as well as the development of the tyrannic imperior, the rulers's attempt to expand their power would undermine the original political tradition in other words, the interaction between and rises and falls of the royal and clan politics had an impact on the stability of the political conditions, and also, a crucial point to help observe the political changes during the early Ch'ing Dynasty. Among the Manchu kinsmen, the Hešeri prospered due to their language proficiency, as the family lived in the areas where multi-language groups were flocked. Moreover, they took the role to coordinate the relationships between the Manchu and Mongo in early period. For a long time, members of the Hešeri family usually undertookthe duty as attendants by emperor as they regarded loyalty as the one and only option. That is why the first and second generation members, Hifu and Sonin, could survive from the intense politics storms. Especially Sonin, who had experienced the stages of the establishment of the imperial power, the protectorate, the emperors’ government, and the aristocratic assistance in governing, still stuck to the faith to support the emperor. His insistence on loyalty made him a member of nobility, then the royal affinity, and finally helped him shift the power and position of his family to the top. Under the trend in which the imperial authority was further established, the third generation of the family, Songgoto and his family members inevitably had conflicts with the imperial power, due to their arrogance and ambition, which at last direct them toward the path of collapse.
Other Identifiers: 1CF6F8D6-908F-887C-F44D-2732E2DD8369
Appears in Collections:臺灣師大歷史學報

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