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Title: 日本宗教教育現況評析
Other Titles: An Assessment of the Current Situation of Religious Education in Japan: A Case Study of Eight High Schools
Authors: 黃智慧
Issue Date: Jun-1997
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學教育學系
Department od Education, NTNU
Abstract: 由於學校制度較為相近,而我國在社會文化的宗教組成方面,也和日本的多元化情況類似,筆者認為日本所施行的宗教教育制度與政策,應該是我國規劃宗教教育政策時非常重要的參考對象之一。1993年以來,筆者有幸參加教育部委託之「宗教教育之國際化比較與政策研究」計畫,本文即是該計畫的研究成果之一。在為期二年的研究過程中,筆者從以下四方面著手進行對日本宗教教育現況進行理解。首先筆者回溯過去具有深厚的社會文化根基的宗教教育之背景,然後,透過對戰後新制度的法源與觀念的認識,以及對學校制度、課程與教材的分析,最後輔以日本實地訪問八所高級中學所得的實例,來進一步思考現代日本宗教教育的理論與實際,及其優缺得失與展望。當今日本所施行的宗教教育的制度,是由二次大戰結束後所重新制訂的一套制度。該制度和戰爭結束前呈現出大為迴異的面貌,甚至於可以說戰後日本教育是從對戰前教育的否定與揚棄為起點而再出發。因此,戰後成立的民主制憲歷屆政府,在處理有關宗教的文教政策時都小心翼翼,唯恐重蹈覆轍,引發眾怒。日本現行的宗教教育政策,可用「公私分明」四個字來說明。亦即,公立學校明訂不可進行特定宗教的教育,而私立學校則可以自由進行。這個政策是在戰後五年內即告確定,並且在各種層次的法源上完成修訂與立法的手續,保障該制度的確實執行。一旦制訂之後,由於制度的合理性與人民守法精神互相配合,使得至今尚未出現對於該法的違例案例。日本現行宗教教育政策戰後五十年來施行之後,如前所述,解決了一些重要的問題,諸如:政教分離;宗教平等、信仰自由的問題。但也留下一部份的問題,即倫理德道德教育及宗教情操教育的問題,目前學界與教育界正努力尋求其解決方案。
Whereas the educational systems of Japan and Taiwan are relatively alike, and the religious composition of the two societies are similarly plural in nature, it is more than reasonable to maintain that the religious─educational system and policy of Japan could offer significance insights for the planning of the same task in Taiwan. Since 1993, I have participated in the research project,“International Comparison of Religious Education and Policy, ” sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Republic of China;this paper presents a portion of the research result of that project. In the two years of research, I have attempted to grasp the current situation of religious education in Japan from four aspects. I first investigated (1)the historical background of religious─educational system and policy in terms of its embeddedness in the socio─cultural matrix. Then, I carried out(2)an examination of the legislative reasoning for the new post─war religious─educational institution and(3)an analysis of the school system, curricula, and teaching material. Finally, with the result from(4)fieldwork case study of eight high schools, I proceeded to re─examine the theory and practice of modern Japanese religious education, and to reconsider its advantage or lack of it and its prospect. The current religious─educational institution of Japan is inherited from one that was re-established at the end of World War II. This institution was so different from the pre-war one that it can be regarded as a total negation of and an all─new departure from the pre─war era. Understandably, the post─war democratic constitutional governments were all rather circumspect with regard to the administration of religious policy, lest errors of previous eras be repeated and thus incur public accusations. The present Japanese religious─educational policy can be characterized in a net─shell as“absolutely separation of the public and the private.” In other words, it is a solemn decree that public schools engage in
Other Identifiers: 72BE7412-D0D6-C4DF-C624-442162163023
Appears in Collections:教育研究集刊

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