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|Other Titles:||The Implication of Goffman's Dramaturgy for Schooling|
Department od Education, NTNU
|Abstract:||爾文．高夫曼（Erving Goffman, 1922─1982）是美國當代社會學的大師。他一方1以微觀分析的角度來探討面對面行為的本質與內涵，另一方面也關心鉅觀社會秩序的建立與維持，對後世互動理論的發展與影響甚鉅。本文主要論述高夫曼運用戲劇分析模式來解讀平日習以為常的互動秩序，特別重視舞臺表演的技巧與互動儀式的進行。他認為世間男女都是舞臺上的演員，在觀眾面前必須竭盡所能，將最完美的演出行為加以呈現。由於舞臺表演難免遭受觀眾侵擾，使演產生困窘的現象，因此印象管理技巧的運用便顯得特別重要，包括第一印象、理想化、神秘化、識相、無意姿態等，這些都是舞臺表演的重要手段。至於互動儀式的運用，高夫曼認為人生宛如一場婚禮，社會秩序如同一組調節性規範，而人際間的面對面互動亦必須按照遊戲規則來進行。他曾經列舉許多互動規則，包括實質性規則、不對稱規則、禮貌性疏忽等，而面子功夫則是互動儀式運用的最明顯事例。此外，高夫曼重視日常接觸的互動過程，特別是當個體與他人產生正面交會的細微舉止及角色規範的維持。最後，本文將藉由高夫曼面對面互動的徵觀分析，進一步討論互動秩序對學校教育活動的啟發與意義。|
Erving Goffman is an American master of contemporary sociology. He, on the one hand, studies the essence and the content of face-to-face behavior under microanalysis, and, on the other hand, concerns the establishment and presentation of macro social order, exerting a great influence on the development of interaction theory. This article mainly states that Goffman makes use of dramaturgy paradigm to explicate the habitual interaction order, and he especially stressed the importance of stage performance skills and the proceeding of interaction ritual. In his opinion, all males and females in the world are actors or actresses on stage, and in front of audience, they have to bend every effort to present the most impeccable performance. Because stage performance inevitably sustains interference from audience, which provokes actors to embarrassment, the practice of impression management plays an influential part, including the first impression, idealization, mystification, tact, unmeant gestures, etc.. All of these are the significant skills of stage performance. As to the application of interaction ritual, Goffman submitted that life is like a wedding ceremony and social order is a set of adjustable norms. Face-to-face interaction among people has to go ahead in accordance with game rules. He once came up with plenty of interaction regulations, comprising substantive rules, asymmetrical rules, civil inattention and face work which is the most apparent case of the operation of interaction ritual. In addition, Goffman targeted interaction procedure of daily intercourses trigged by an individual and others and the maintenance of role norms. At last, this article further discuss the enlightenment and meaning derived from interaction order toward school education activities, by means of Goffman's face-to-face microanalysis.
|Appears in Collections:||教育研究集刊|
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