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Title: 由最高法院判例看美國公立中學的宗教活動
Other Titles: Religious Activities in American Public High Schools: A Review of Supreme Court Cases
Authors: 張民杰
Issue Date: Jul-1999
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學教育學系
Department od Education, NTNU
Abstract: 美國是一個崇尚宗教民主、自由的國家,其聯邦憲法第一修正案的「建立條款」及「信教自由條款」規範了政府與宗教的關係,以及人民的信仰自由,同時也對學校教育及校園宗教活動產生重大影響。本文藉著檢視最高法院的案例,說明美國公立中學校園內宗教活動應守的分際,包括:1.校方不宜規定統一的祈禱與聖經閱讀;2.中學生可以有限度弟成立聖經社或團契聚會;3.學校畢業典禮不宜有祈願和祝禱的宗教活動。而聯邦最高法院判決依據的基本理由包括:1.宗教自由條款的背景與精神;2.宗教所具私人及神聖的性質;3.中學具有限開放論壇的特性。而判例的適用隨時代與各案而有所改變,不過其趨勢從「分離隔牆」(wall of separation)的「傑佛遜主義」(Jeffersonians)傾向於麥迪遜主張「不偏袒」(non-preference)的「通融主義」(accommodationism)。美國中學校園未來一定持續有許多宗教活動,聯邦最高法院所建立的判例雖然提供一些宗教活動的分際,但是容許特定宗教活動與否的界線並非相當明確,如何做取捨?仍然困擾著美國中學的學校行政人員。
The United States is a country that advocates freedom of religion. The Establishment Clause and Free Exercise Clause, included in the First Amendment of the Federal Constitution, not only regulate the relationship between state and church, but also state people's freedom of religion. These two clauses have a great impact on religious activities in schools. After examining legal precedents, the author illustrates three principles of religious activities in public high schools. These principles are (1) It is inappropriate for schools to stipulate the common from of prayer and bible reading. (2) High school under certain circumstances. (3) Public Schools authorities should not hold an invocation or benediction during graduation ceremonies. The decision of U.S. Supreme Court is based on the following reasons: (1) the original background and spirit for the Establishment Clause and the Free Exercise Clause of the Federal Constitution, (2) the personal and sacred nature of religion, (3) the attribution of limited open forum in public schools. The decision-making of the court is moving gradually from “wall of separation” or “Jeffersonians” towards “accommodation”. More and more religious activities are expected in American public high schools in the future. The U.S. Supreme Court has revealed some principles for religious activities through its legal precedents. However, whether some special religious activities are allowed on campuses still troubles school administrators.
Other Identifiers: 22053011-CD5E-DD5F-D56F-994ABA2A9D73
Appears in Collections:教育研究集刊

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