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Title: 曾鞏筆下的女性書寫:一個來自儒家生命的思索
Other Titles: The Representation of Women in Zeng Gong’s Classical Writings: A Reflection of the Confucian Life
Authors: 王基倫
Chi-Lun Wang
Issue Date: Mar-2014
Publisher: 國立臺灣師範大學
National Taiwan Normal University
Abstract: 北宋古文家曾鞏,終身服膺儒家思想,強調仁義道德的發用。他的筆下,如何評述當代女性,這是引人好奇深思的問題。考察曾鞏的古文作品,主要是以墓誌為載體,評述女性的美德。他秉承漢代《禮》學的說法,依循「三從」的觀點,肯定女性盡子道、盡妻道、盡母道,又依循「四德」的觀點,肯定女子在家事方面的操持。這當然是受到儒學思想的演化所形成的社會背景,而有以致之。曾鞏繼承漢儒的解釋,欣賞婦女孝順的行為、恭敬的態度之外,也特別肯定能勤儉持家的女性。雖然說,古代女性的評述大多是男性社會制約下的產物,但是曾鞏記人事時,追求信實而語言繁簡適中;寫悲情時,溫和平正而不激切,有他自己的寫作風格。觀察曾鞏對女性的書寫,一方面能對宋代的儒學教義影響力之大有更深刻地理解,一方面也能看出曾鞏如何將儒家經典的理解落實在現實社會生活中。
Zeng Gong, a classicist of the Northern Song, faithfully embraced Confucianism and emphasized the development and cultivation of the Confucian virtues of humanity(仁)andrighteousness(義). How Zeng Gong represented women in his time warrants in-depth study.According to my close reading of Zeng Gong’s classical writings, Zeng Gong largely used epitaphs as a medium to delineate the virtues of women. Inheriting the concept of Rites(《禮》) from the Han Dynasty, and follows the notion of “Three Obediences”(三從), namely that a woman must be good behavior of the filial daughter, the help her husband’s wife, the mothers who can take care of sons and daughters, and the notion of “Four Virtues”(四德), namely that a woman must keep good moral qualities, speech, appearances, and affirmed her household management in her family. Zeng Gong held these beliefs because of his social background, which was nurtured and influenced by the evolution of Confucianism. In addition to his inheritance from Han Confucianism, which led him to appreciate fidelity and a deferential manner in women, Zeng Gong affirmed diligence, frugality, and competent housekeeping as feminine values. Although these criticisms of women were largely voiced by a male member within a patriarchal society, Zeng Gong’s narration is reliable and authentic, and his classical composition moderates. When he articulates a tragic story, his narration is even, equitable, and not vehement, thereby forming his own unique style. My discussion of the representation of women in Zeng Gong both illuminates the dissemination of the influence of Confucian didacticism in the Song Dynasty, and clarifies how Zeng Gong applied his classical learning and understanding to real life.
Other Identifiers: B9902A05-18E1-2A01-23DF-497BD5B55733
Appears in Collections:師大學報

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