Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
|Title:||Hawthorne's Zenobia and Margaret Fuller|
|Other Titles:||霍桑和瑪格烈特·傅勒: 文學之怨?|
Office of Research and Development
"To insure a more natural union between intellectual and manual labor than now exists, and to combine the thinker and the worker in the same in-dividual," George Ripley, a Unitarian minister and a Transcendentalist, initiated the founding of a transcendental farming association, Brook Farm, situated some nine miles from Boston, New England, in 1841. Nathaniel Hawthorne, then a young man of about 37, still unmarried but already engaged to Sophia Peabody, bought two shares of stock at $500 each, and began his life at Brook Farm as a member in the spring of 1841. He wanted to build his own home there where he would eventually marry Sophia, but he left the Farm after toiling one whole summer, disillusioned.After a lapse of one decade, in 1852, he wrote his third novel, The Blithedale Romance, setting it right in this communal Farm. In it, he created a beautiful dark-haired female character, Zenobia, who was endowed with intellectual pride in being a bluestocking and an excellent "conversationalist," and who was also a fervent advocate of women's rights. But this proud and strong-willed woman ended her own life in a muddy river after having an unrequited love affair with another inmate of the farm, Hollingsworth, and also after being disinherited by her father, Old Moodie.The controversy begins when Hawthorne's son, Julian Hawthorne, published his parents' biography, Hawthorne and His Wife, in 1885, and included in it certain excerpts from Hawthorne's Italian Notebooks. Margaret Fuller's biographers and critics were furious about the content of these excerpts; they began to attack Hawthorne for using her as a prototype of Zenobia, and thus distorting the fair image of her and her reputation as well. Margaret Fuller, a contemporary of Hawthorne, was herself a highly knowledgeable bluestocking of literary aptness; she was famous for her "conversations" and her book, Woman of the Nineteenth Century, had won her the reputation of being a feminist. Her life was ended in a shi
|Appears in Collections:||師大學報|
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.