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Title: 從悲劇場景到悲劇倫理
Other Titles: From the Scene of Tragedy to the Ethics of Tragedy: Discussing the Issues of Žižek and Lacan
Authors: 蔣興儀
Issue Date: Mar-2010
Publisher: 國立臺灣師範大學研究發展處
Office of Research and Development
Abstract: 本文旨在探討悲劇的倫理向度。作為一位拉岡主義者,紀傑克不僅闡述了蘊含在悲劇場景之中的暴力機制,並且致力於分解此一機制,其努力源自於眾所周知的心理分析倫理學。傑哈德認為,悲劇的背後有著一樁真正發生過的集體暴力事件。共同體為了解除內部的危機,將暴力向外集中在一個代罪羊的身上,大家一起把他給犧牲掉。當傑哈德只是將悲劇縮減為對生成性暴力事件的模仿時,心理分析卻主張:正是悲劇場景本身的戲劇性結構才構成了犧牲的集體暴力機制。紀傑克強調,人們共同觀看死亡的景觀並從中獲得受虐的快感,藉此緊密地結合起來。當共同體在其內部感受到死亡的摧毀力量時,會將死亡向外排除出去。一旦造成分裂的死亡向外移置到受害的他人身上,共同體的內在性便能擴展為極大化的愛欲,藉此團結起來。因此,悲劇的戲劇性結構實際上是透過再現而把死亡給馴服了。我們必須要突破戲劇的再現,因為它驅逐死亡而造成殘酷。拉岡對於悲劇《安蒂岡妮》的閱讀,掘發了悲劇的倫理面向。透過安蒂岡妮的第二次死亡,她的形象所閃耀的光輝,帶給我們目盲的震撼,引發了我們內在的分裂。這使得我們再也無法將內在的分裂移置出去,而必須承擔我們自身的存有學裂隙。
This essay focuses on the ethical dimension of tragedy. As a Lacanianist, Zizek not only explicates the mechanism of violence that dominated the tragic scene, he also endeavors to unwork this mechanism of violence. Zizek’s effort originates from the well known ethics of psychoanalysis. Girard thinks that there must be a true event of collective violence hidden beneath tragedy. In order to relieve its inner crisis, community exerts violence onto the chosen scapegoat and sacrifices him collectively. Differing from Girard’s thesis that reduces tragedy as the imitation of the event of generative violence, psychoanalysis hold the belief that it is theatrical structure of tragedy that constitutes exactly the mechanism of collective violence of sacrifice. Zizek thinks that through observing the spectacle of death, people not only are filled with masochistic enjoyment, but also are united together intensively. The theatrical structure of tragedy tames the destructive potential of death that community feels from within and expels it outside. Displacing the rending division onto the sacrificed others, community reaches the maximum of binding Eros in its interiority. We have to break out of this theatrical representation that encloses the obscenity of the expelled death. In his reading of Antigone, Lacan unearths ethical dimension of tragedy. Through her pure desire for death, Antigone presents her figure with glorious splendor and brings us the blind shattering. She causes our division from within. That’s the reason why we no longer displace inner division outside and assume our ontological fissure uncompromisingly.
Other Identifiers: 2C4569AD-A1ED-4A2E-2E94-624F32C34F68
Appears in Collections:師大學報

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