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Title: 熱鬧場中 度化有緣:從明末清初佛教中人戲曲創作觀點看戲佛融通的可能性及其創作規範
Other Titles: A Study on the Possibility of the Integrating Drama and Buddhism and the Creative Scope from the Perspective of Buddhist Drama Creation in the Late Ming and Early Qing Dynasties
Authors: 林智莉
Lin, Chih-li
Issue Date: Dec-2012
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學國文學系
Department of Chinese, NTNU
Abstract: 明末清初佛教復興,信仰之士利用戲曲傳達一己信念。屠隆是第一位積極利用戲曲傳達出世理念的劇作家。他的三部劇作《曇花記》、《綵毫記》與《修文記》皆試圖為世人指出一條由入世到出世的人生大道。他提出佛祖若棄捨劇場將無由度人的論點,然其創作卻被認為有「以戲導欲」之嫌。這種情形在明末清初僧人智達編寫《歸元鏡》時遭到更嚴厲指控,於是他撰寫〈戲劇融通〉、〈問答因緣〉與〈客問決疑〉三文證明「以戲度化」的可能,並提出佛祖度人五項要素:佛法、世諦、文字、音律和通俗。屠隆與智達亦將理論落實於創作上,強調「求真」以彰顯作品的真實性;「求俗」以方便宣揚教義;此外,演出場域也被以儀式規範,試圖將戲曲的娛樂性轉化為宗教神聖意義。在這個消弭戲、佛對立的過程中,同時也建立起兩者融通的軌道。
In the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties when Buddhism was rejuvenated, believers triedto express their beliefs by drama. Tu Long first conveyed the idea of monasticism through hisdramas. His “Tan Hua Ji”, “Tsai Hao Ji” and “Siou Wun Ji” are works on human salvation, revealingthe path from the secular life to the monastic life. He believed dramas are one essential salvationmeans for the Buddha but he had been questioned for this, as drama may “mislead people awayfrom the right path their desires should follow.” Chin Da’s “Gui Yuan Jing” was also accused,so he wrote “Xi Ju Rong Tong”, “Wen Da Yin Yuan”and “Ke Wen Jue Yi”to elaborate the fusionof Chinese opera and Buddhism and underscored Buddha’s five essential salvation elements:Dharma, worldly truth, words, prosody and popular culture. Both dramatists incorporated theoriesin their creation, in which the creative ideas highlight “truth” and “popularity”. The truth of contentand beliefs was underscored to fully manifest the divine meanings contained, and the use ofpopular language was emphasized to promote Buddhism. Besides, actors and audience mustfollow certain rules to transform dramas into a ritual of religious significance; this helped erasethe Buddhism and drama opposition.
Other Identifiers: FAB3EF0C-2FDF-1443-5EC4-64332BCCA0A9
Appears in Collections:國文學報

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