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Title: 破暗燭幽
Other Titles: Lighting the Darkness: The Ritual of Lighting Lamps in Early Lingbao Scriptures
Authors: 謝世維
Issue Date: Jun-2010
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學國文學系
Department of Chinese, NTNU
Abstract: 本文探討古靈寶經當中的燃燈儀式,並試圖呈現古靈寶經當中燈儀的發展脈絡與儀式的轉變。古靈寶經的首謝儀式多涉及燃燈之法,《太上洞玄靈寶赤書玉訣妙經》中的〈元始五老禳星宿客災明天分度真文玉訣〉當中燃燈只是單純以燈數象徵方位,並使之照諸天光而已,並無任何供養、功德、照亮九幽、拔魂救度之意。而在《太上洞玄靈寶智慧罪根上品大戒經》整個儀式的關懷從國家層級對天災的禳除轉化為對地獄受苦毒的眾生之救度,而且「明燈燒香」配合「首謝」可以使九幽之下,得見光明,並使諸魂得以解脫。在這種基礎之下,《洞玄靈寶長夜之府九幽玉匱明真科》當中的〈九幽玉匱拔度死魂罪對上品〉,另外以九尺九燈為主發展出以燃燈為核心的儀式,上照諸天,下照九幽長夜。行齋者於九燈之下繞燈行道,禮拜十方,以立齋燒香燃燈之功德來為帝王師親等一切眾生免度十苦八難,並為自家億曾萬祖的囚徒先魂,開諸光明,期盼咸得解脫,轉入信根。在此經典中燃燈已經具備功德、照亮九幽、拔魂救度之意,而且被獨立出來成為一套儀式。這種單獨成立的燃燈之法成為後來燃燈儀的基礎。這種以燈破暗,以陽散陰,以燃燈的光明來照徹幽暗,進而解救陰暗地獄中苦魂的觀念與宗教實踐,是在五世紀的中國南方援用了佛教功德與地獄救度的觀念後再結合佛教與本土的禮燈儀式與形制而創發出來的新宗教型態。
This article examines the ritual of lighting lamps in early Lingbao scriptures and traces the development of the ritual. In the Jade Instructions, one of earliest Lingbao scriptures, Daoist practitioners performed the rituals for the benefit of the family, society, and the whole nation. In the Major Precepts of the Upper Chapter of Wisdom, each lighting lamps ritual had to be conducted in the context of the entire Lingbao ritual system, especially confession. However, in the Ordinances of the Luminous Perfected the traditional lamps lighting further bears a salvational significance in itself. Light dispels the clouding darkness of hell, hence all souls in the hell can be liberated. The ritual destroys the hells which consequently results in universal salvation. The ritual of lighting lamps became a systematic ritual on its own and a popular practice for various purposes as well. The ritual syncretizes Daoist liturgy and Buddhist concepts of merit and salvation from hell. During the Tang dynasty, the celebration of the Lantern Festival reached its zenith and became one of the largest social activities throughout the empire.
Other Identifiers: 659C5D42-89D1-E543-CDEB-56C4C68D3C77
Appears in Collections:國文學報

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