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Title: 密法、道術與童子:穢跡金剛法與靈官馬元帥 秘法中的驅邪法式研究
Other Titles: Esoteric Buddhism, Daoist Ritual and Child Medium: A Study of Exorcism in the Method of Ucchu ma and Luminous Agent Marshal Ma
Authors: 謝世維
Hsieh, Shu-wei
Issue Date: Jun-2012
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學國文學系
Department of Chinese, NTNU
Abstract: 本研究從驅邪法式的角度比較穢跡金剛法與靈官馬元帥秘法之異同與其間之關係。本文首先論述穢跡金剛法,其中以《大威力烏樞瑟摩明王經》、《穢跡金剛說神通大滿陀羅尼法術靈要門》、《穢跡金剛禁百變法經》等穢跡金剛法相關文獻分析穢跡金剛的形象與法術特徵。另外也分析靈官馬元帥秘法,以《道法會元》卷220 至卷231 中的靈官馬元帥相關形象與法術為分析對象,筆者認為,宋代時期的靈官馬元帥形象並不固定,而某些早期的靈官馬元帥三頭九目六臂的形象則援用自穢跡金剛的形象,其中某些靈官馬元帥的咒語也直接取自穢跡金剛咒。這可以看出密法與道法兩者之間有借用關係。本文同時分析靈官馬元帥秘法之中的童子驅邪法式,以〈附體秘要〉與〈附生童法〉為核心,進而分析靈官馬元帥秘法中驅邪法式的程序模式與其特色。這種靈官馬元帥秘法之中透過童子而施行的驅邪法式與印度所傳來的阿尾奢(āveśa)法有關,阿尾奢法是以童子為媒介,用以問事、醫病、驅邪。這種法術唐代以後逐漸轉向民間發展,與道士、民間的法術儀式專家結合。從本文的分析中可以發現於宋代時期佛教與道教有許多法術的交流、借用與轉化,並形成道教豐富而多元的法術文化。
This research compares and contrasts the apotropaic rituals of the Ucchu ma and Luminous Agent Marshal Ma, and analyses the relationship between them. This paper first discusses Ucchu ma and analyses its images and ritual methods in the light of related texts. Additionally, this paper analyses “the esoteric rites of the Numinous Official Martial Ma”, taking as its subject the images and ritual magic from juan 220 to 231 of the Daofa huiyuan. The author finds that Song Dynasty images of Luminous Agent Marshal Ma are not stabilized, and that certain early images, with three heads, nine eyes and six arms, are derivative from those of Ucchu ma, in addition to various incantations which show similar derivation. This demonstrates the close syncretic relationship between Tantric and Daoist ritual. This paper also focuses on tantric possession and child-possession to identify the role of young boys in apotropaic rituals of exorcism, and proceeds from this to analyse the overall structure of the ritual. This method for using young boys in apotropaic rites bears a strong relationship to the āveśa rites transmitted from India, which also use boys as mediums to perform divination and exorcism. From the Tang dynasty onwards, this kind of ritual gradually spread in common religion, by both Daoist priests and specialists of common religious magical rites. From the analysis in this paper, it can be demonstrated that there was a great deal of interchange, borrowing and transformation between Song dynasty Daoism and Buddhism, generating a rich and multi-valent ritual culture.
Other Identifiers: 195D607B-BE9E-F070-2CD6-7726E44E2784
Appears in Collections:國文學報

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