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Title: 市場導向對德國高等教育之影響
Other Titles: The Influence of Marketing Orientation on Germany Higher Education
Authors: 張源泉
yuan-Chuan Chang
Issue Date: Sep-2010
Publisher: 教育研究與評鑑中心
Center for Educational Research and Evaluation
Abstract: 德國高等教育曾有輝煌的成就,但因無法與時俱進,而出現競爭力下滑的問題。近年來,德國大學進行市場導向之改革,為釐清此改革動向之脈絡與影響,本文先探討德國大學最初對於市場導向之排拒,而後再分析市場導向之萌芽,及其對德國大學之影響。德國大學可概分為中古大學與現代大學兩個不同的發展階段;其中,中古大學做為學術性行會組織,為保有其獨立性,而與社會隔離。在柏林大學的典範中,洪堡強調大學不能成為政治與經濟的附庸,而排拒市場導向,因此過去德國大學的經費大多來自政府的撥款,而撥款的多寡與大學的辦學績效無關。在知識經濟時代,各國政府無不重視高等教育對於國家競爭力的貢獻,因而擴建大學,朝向大眾化趨勢發展,這使得政府的財政日細,而開始重視投入與產出比率的市場導向。德國市場導向興起之社會脈格,來自1960年代的高等教育急速擴增,以及「波隆納宣言」後,歐盟各國的高等教育界線模糊,各大學的競逐舞臺加大、競爭壓力大增,而需重視辦學績效。最後,本文從解除管制、評鑑與補助掛鉤、擴大教育選擇權、使用者付費與招收外國學生等層面,探討市場導向對德國大學之影響。
There had been brilliant achievements in Germany higher education. However, its competitiveness descends because of falling behind the times. Recently, Germany universities undertake the revolution of marketing orientation. To understand process and influence ofthis revolution, this study firstly discusses the rejection ofmarketing orientation in Germany universities. Then, this study analyzes the beginning of marketing orientation and the influence of Germany universities. Germany universities could be divided into two different development stages, medieval time universities and modern universities. As the academic institutions, medieval time universities separate from society for protecting its independence. Take the example of Berlin University, Humboldt emphasized that university could not be the vassal ofpolitics and economy and reject marketing orientation. Therefore, Germany universities usually get funds which are irrelevant to administrating performance from the government. In the times of knowledge economy, every country valued contributions of higher education on country competitiveness, they extended universities which towards to massification. However, this leaded to finance deficiency, so they stared to value the marketing orientation of input and output roportion. The societal process of rise of Germany marketing orientation came from rapid extension of higher education. Moreover, the demarcation line of higher education became blurred in everγcountry after Bologna Declaration. They valued administrating performance because of the enlargement of competitive areas and competitive stress. Finally, this study starts from deregulation, relation between evaluation and subsidy, extension of education choice, user charging and recruiting of foreign students to discuss the influence of marketing orientation on Germany universities.
Other Identifiers: 3DB3E390-555C-5253-15EE-55B5712F6DA4
Appears in Collections:當代教育研究

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