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|Other Titles:||Policies for the Diversification of Upper Secondary Education in Japan: Educational Reform Concepts and Their Implementation in Featured High Schools|
National Taiwan Normal University
|Abstract:||本研究旨在探討日本高級中等教育「多樣化政策」之發展沿革，並分析該政策下成立之特色學校所象徵的教育改革理念與辦學意義。進而，剖析其實施狀況、影響與課題，以供國人借鏡參考。「多樣化政策」乃指學校型態、類科與教育課程的多元化政策，而特色學校則為實施有特色的教育課程之學校，不分公私立、高中職學校。本研究使用M. Trow 的高等教育模式分析「多樣化政策」之歷史發展沿革，並同時採取質性與量化調查研究法，進行長期研究調查。研究發現，日本第二階段的「多樣化政策」，其教育改革的理念在於讓多元且具特色之高級中等教育的學校型態與教育課程來因應各式各樣的學生之特質與學習需求。而特色學校的建立也確實符合「普及化高級中等教育階段」下，高級中等教育所應有的「多樣性」姿態。據此提出建議「十二年國民基本教育」中應融入學校本位的改革精神，讓辦學自主權與獨立招生制回歸學校本身。設置多元且有特色的教育課程之特色學校既能有效因應學生素質與需求的多樣性，也才能真正達到適才適所、因材施教、適性揚才的目標。|
After 30 years spent planning and designing a 12-Year Basic Education policy, the Ministry of Education finally announced in 2011 that the policy would be implemented in 2014. However, despite the government’s promotion of the policy for three years, it is still inducing intense disputes and controversy. The public is primarily concerned about the arrangement of the entrance examinations, outnumbered-applicant ranking criteria, and featured high schools; these three controversial points are related to enrollment and school administration. In particular, the public tends to directly link featured high schools with traditional, so-called “elite” high schools. Thus, the public has focused on school enrollment while overlooking the importance of school administration.In the postwar period, Japan implemented diversification policies for upper secondary education twice: in the 1960s and the 1990s. In the first phase, general education and vocationaleducation were separated. In the second phase, featured high schools were promoted. Following the emergence of the comprehensive course in the 1990s, the government of Japan aggressively promoted special designations among high schools regardless of whether they were public, private, general, or specialized, including the Super Science High School, Super English Language High School, Becoming a Specialist, and Japanese Dual System designations. These designations were intended to develop schools’ characteristics, innovation, localization, and diversification, as well as to help schools implement featured curricula to become featured schools. The implementation of the featured high schools policy released teachers and students from existing curricula, leading them to develop creative teaching materials; it also provided junior high school students with multiple choices for secondary school. Moreover, it facilitated cooperation between local enterprises and high schools, and balanced development between urban and rural areas.This
|Appears in Collections:||教育科學研究期刊|
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