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Title: 任務描述對幼兒目標設定管控之激發
Other Titles: Examining Effects of Task Descriptions asExternal EF for Young Children
Authors: 邱淑惠
Shuhui Chiu
Issue Date: Sep-2012
Publisher: 國立臺灣師範大學
National Taiwan Normal University
Abstract: 本研究回顧與大腦前額葉相關的管控功能(Executive Function)發展後,結合與解決非結構性任務相關的研究和教學現場觀察,提出教育應用假說:任務描述是否能涵蓋相關領域知識的提示,可影響幼兒對非結構性任務的詮釋,進而影響目標設定管控功能的發揮。本研究以實驗的方式讓幼兒挑選與蝴蝶成長相關的照片進行敘事創作,實驗組接受較明確的任務描述,控制組接受較模糊的任務描述,觀察兩組幼兒目標設定管控功能的發揮有無顯著差異。本研究以幼兒的照片挑選、選圖理由、創作內容條理與創作主題評量幼兒的目標設定管控。由不同面向觀察到的結果都支持,實驗組接受有助相關領域知識提取的任務描述後,幼兒的創作行為比控制組更具方向性。最後,本研究提出教育應用建議。
This study reviewed the development of executive function during the preschool period and proposed an educational hypothesis: young children possess a relatively immature goal setting EF;therefore an explicit goal description may serve as an external EF for them. An experimental design was applied to examine the effects of task descriptions on children’s story-authoring behaviors. Sixty kindergarteners aged 5.1 to 6.2 years participated in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental or the control group. Children in pairs were required to complete an ill-structured problem where children selected photos and recorded their narratives for each selected photo. As compared to the control group, the instructor gave a more explicit task description to the children inthe experimental group. Children in the experimental group were asked to “use these photos to show us how butterflies grow up.” Children in the control group were asked to “use these photos to tell us about butterflies.” As expected, children in the experimental group were more concise in photo selection than children in the control group. The former also displayed greater logical order in arranging selected photos than the latter. Evidences derived from children’s behaviors and reasoning were consistent. Children’s narratives derived from the experimental group were also rated better in photo-story consistency and subject clarity than children’s narratives derived from the control group. Findings suggest that a precise task description may facilitate young children’s problem representation process; therefore, young children may have a clear goal in mind to guide them in completing tasks.
Other Identifiers: 012425F5-EBB1-ABB6-7DC3-EDB46FB63BF1
Appears in Collections:教育科學研究期刊

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