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Title: 建構主義的認識論觀點及其在科學教育上的意義
Other Titles: The Epistemological Perspective of Constructivism and Its Implication in Science Education
Authors: 劉宏文
Issue Date: Oct-1996
Publisher: 臺灣師範大學科學教育中心
National Taiwan Normal University Science Education Center
Abstract: 認識論是傳統西方哲學對知識的主張及理論,大體上可區分為理性主義及經驗主義兩派。理性主義主張知識的本質及來源是生而具有的,人類有先天自明的知識,經由演繹法的推論而建立知識系統。而經驗主義者認為知識來自經驗與觀察;雖有若干理性知識存在,但理性基本上是一種能力而非知識,經驗主義者主要以歸納法建立了知識系統。 16世紀義大利文藝復興運動興起之後,科學迅速發展,建基於科學方法上的知識大量累積,使人們體認到科學方法才是知識建立的根本。19世紀初,英國哲學家孔德等人提出實證主義的認識論觀點,將科學方法應用到所有經驗的世界,認為觀察、理論、實證是科學及一切知識的本質。 隨著科技的發展,新的科學理論不斷的提出與修正,對科學本質的看法也有所改變;以波普爾、拉卡脫斯及庫恩為代表的科學哲學家,從科學的本身及科學發展的歷史對科學的本質提出不同的看法 。認為科學的本質不在實證,而在否認,科學不是最後的真理,而是科學社群共同的理念。 皮亞傑是20世紀對教育理論影響深遠的學者之一,他自認為是一個討論知識來源及成長的發生認識論者,他的心理發展階段論及概念生態的理論成為建構主義認識論的重要組成。 建構主義超越了傳統理性主義與經驗主義的認識論觀點,認為知識不是客觀的本有,而是主觀的認定。但理性也有其範圍,只承認個人經驗所能達到的實在。 此外科學哲學的發展也豐富了建構主義的內涵。 基於建構主義對知識本質的看法及主動建構的特質,科學教育就必須注意到學生迷思概念的改變及科學概念的建立。教師只是知識的中介者,對學生認知結構的瞭解及體認知識建構的社會情境也是本文討論的內容。
Of the western philosophies, epistemology is the traditional assertion and theory of knowledge which on the whole can be divided into two schools: rationalism and empiricism. The rationalists claim that the essence and resource of knowledge are innate. With the intrinsic clarity, humanbeings set up the knowledge system by deduction. However, the empiricists believe that knowledge results from experience and observation. In spite of some of the rational knowledge, the rational basically is not so much a kind of knowledge as a kind of competence. As a result, the empiricists set up a knowledge system by induction. After the Renaissance in the 16th century, with the rapid improvement of science, the knowledge based on scientific method was enormously accumulated, which made people sense that scientific method is the key to forming knowledge. In the early 19th century, Comte(et al), the English philosopher, who believed the essence of knowledge, including science, are observation, theories and verification, brought up the epis-temologic perspective of positivism, and applied scientific methods to everything in the experiencing world. On the other hand, the scientific philosophers, Poper, Lakatos and Kuhn, from the angles of science itself and the history of scientific development, proposed different viewpoints. They thought that the scientific essence lies not in verification but in falsification. Science is not the ultimate truth but the common beliefs of the scientific community. Piaget, one of the most influential scholars on the educational theories in the 20th century, believed himself a genetic epistemologist discussing the origin and development of knowledge. His theory on mental stage and conceptual ecology has become the important components of constructivism. Constructivism has surpassed the traditional rationalism and empiricism in terms of epistemology. It proposed that knowledge is not objective reality but subjective identification. However, the rational h
Other Identifiers: DCEB50B4-A5C2-A377-94E9-D5F1707248A3
Appears in Collections:科學教育月刊

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