虛實融入感於行動擴增實境教學之影響因素探討 Factors Influencing Learner Presence in Mix-Reality Instruction

Date
2016
Authors
李承蓉
Li, Cheng-Rong
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Abstract
過去多項研究證實應用行動擴增實境進行教學,可以增加學生的學習成效、學習動機;後有學者卻認為這樣的方式難以取代自然經驗,部分學生也有可能過度專注虛擬內容,忽略真實環境;因此有學者提出 ,應該先了解受試者在虛擬環境中的存在感(presence),受試者很可能因為個人經驗和個人特質的不同,而影響學習成效。因此本研究提出可以更加符合行動擴增實境的存在感測量方式,稱之虛實融入感;為了解學生的學習經驗和滿意度對虛實融入感的相關影響,本研究將學生的學習體驗和互動經驗合稱為AR學習體驗。以目前國內急待提升的科學教育主題之一的碳足跡為教學活動作為教學科目。 本研究所提出之虛實融入感,用以測量學生之實體存在感、社會存在感、時間存在感以及使用者與虛實互動情形。本研究假設學習者在使用行動擴增實境的學習成效,會因虛實融入感的不同而受到影響,也會影響使用者的AR學習體驗。本研究募集對象新北市國小五、六年級學生,共計60名,進行行動擴增實境學習活動後,透過問卷量表了解國受試者虛實融入感程度現況,探討學生的虛實融入感與學習成效的關聯性,並探討虛實融入感與AR學習體驗之相關影響。 研究結果發現高年級國小學童之虛實融入感有程度上的差異情形,而大部分受試學生在運用行動式擴增實境進行學習活動後,能有效地提升了碳足跡單元的學習成效。結果顯示虛實融入感與學習成效整體是有顯著相關。虛實融入感與AR學習體驗及各構面也都呈現顯著相關,顯示出受試者的學習經驗會對虛實融入感產生影響。整體結論具體建議教育工作者未來在運行行動式擴增實境進行教學時,應考慮虛實融入感、AR學習體驗對學習成效之影響。
Many researches have proved that applying mobile augmented reality (MAR) in education can enhance learners’ learning efficiency and learning motivation, but some researches have debated that the students who deeply immerse in the virtual learning materials might pay little attention to the authentic surroundings. Researchers previously claimed that the subjective degree of presence in virtual environment should be evaluated in advance because learning effect might be affected by personal experience and individual characteristics. To better evaluate level of presence in MAR surroundings, this study suggests a series of evaluation methodology, so called “learner presence in mix-reality instruction”, along with the “augmented reality (AR) learning experience” including learning experience and interactive experience for exploring the influences on learner presence. Carbon footprint calculation, one of the general scientific topics advocated in Taiwan recently, was selected as the learning content. In this study, the learner presence in mix-reality instruction was evaluated by physical presence, social presence, temporal presence and learner’s interaction in mix-reality. The learning effect and AR learning experience were assumed to be sensitive to the degrees of learner presence in mix-reality. The study recruited 60 elementary school students of 5th- and 6th-grade in New Taipei City. After a MAR learning activity, the questionnaires were applied to measure learner presence and to investigate the learning effect and AR learning experience under the influence of learner presence. The results showed that there are different levels of learner presence in mix-reality between target learners. Most of the learners had great improvement on learning effects after the MAR learning activity. The level of learner presence in mix-reality is significantly related to the learning effect. The results also showed that the learner presence in mix-reality is related to the AR learning experience. Moreover, the learner presence in mix-reality is related to interactive experience and learning experience respectively. This indicated that the levels of learner presence in mix-reality were affected by learners’personal experience. The results suggested that educators should take the effect of learner presence in mix-reality and AR learning experiences into consideration while adopting MAR learning activities.
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Keywords
行動式擴增實境, 虛實融入感, 學習體驗, 碳足跡, mobile augmented reality, learner presence in mix-reality, learning experience, carbon footprint
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