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The Effects of Multimedia Annotations on EFL Young Adults’Incidental Vocabulary Learning with a Focus on Unfamiliar Concepts
Dr. Chih-Cheng Lin
incidental vocabulary learning
Studies on comparing still pictures and video clips or animation as multimedia annotations produced inconclusive results. A further examination of the studies since 1996, however, showed that learners were familiar with the concepts of the target words, leaving extra visual aids, either still or dynamic, redundant. This study was intended to investigate whether video clips and animation, compared with still pictures, better assist our EFL learners’ incidental learning of words with unfamiliar concepts. The present study adopted a three-group immediate posttest and delayed posttest quasi-experimental design. Ten target words were selected and embedded in a reading text, each of which was annotated by the three annotation types: text-only, text and still pictures, and text and videos (or animation). Three intact classes, a total of 88 seventh graders, were recruited in a junior high school in northern Taiwan and each of the three was randomly assigned to one of the three annotation types. All participants took the pretest two weeks before the experiment to ensure their equivalence of baseline vocabulary knowledge, the immediate posttest right after reading the text, and the delayed posttest two weeks after the experiment without prior notice. A three-way (2 times of measurement x 2 types of tests x 3 groups of annotations) mixed repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences among the three groups, in which the video group outperformed both the picture group and the text group. For young adults’ EFL learning, learning new words of unfamiliar concepts with video clips and textual annotations is more effective than with still pictures and textual annotations and with textual annotations. Accordingly classroom teachers are strongly encouraged to incorporate dynamic images in their materials when engaging students in learning new words of unfamiliar concepts.
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