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Title: 清代閩臺地區保甲制度之研究(1708-1895)
Pao-jia system in Qing Dynasty Fujian and Taiwan area, 1708-1895
Authors: 莊吉發
Chiu Wen-hui
Keywords: 保甲制度
Bao-Jia system
Taiwan-Fujian district
local society
Jie-Jhuang president
Issue Date: 2007
Abstract: 本論文以閩臺為中心,兼顧國家與社會的角度,從保甲制的落實層面出發,以社會治安為考察切入點,進而觀察兩地社會保甲制的延續性與獨特性。時間斷限上以清代為主,自康熙四十七年(1708)發布全國施行保甲命令起,迄於光緒二十一年(1895)臺灣割讓予日本,並敘及前後相關史事。 清自康熙朝領有臺灣,閩臺兩地人口遷移流動極為活躍,除了海上澳甲船甲的實施外,陸地上的保甲更是官員多所強調之處,而在不同的社會背景下,兩地保甲制度演變也有相當不同的表現,彼此之間或有承傳、或有變異。 橫越明末清初的戰亂,福建山區應地方社會型態所產生的自律性社會組織在清初時被國家力量開始有意的漸次消滅,取而代之者包括明末以來衍生至鄉約保甲制的種種職役人員,都在地方秩序的再整合上產生一定的作用,意味著清政府的基層支配力量逐漸在福建地方社會中確立。雍正以後,閩省官員百般嘗試要讓國家力量更有效率深入地方社會,作為方式之一的保甲制在官民雙方彼此影響過程中,漸次形成與清政府原本想像不同之圖景。 清初康熙至嘉慶年間,臺灣社會移墾社會特質濃厚,地緣團體與宗族組織皆未發展成形,保甲制未能與地方社會密切結合,其功效不得不大打折扣。道光以後,街莊等自然聚落亦隨時間累積而漸次成形,保甲才得以地方頭人-街莊總理-為著力點發揮較多功能,由官方給予其半官方身分,藉之推行保甲事務,任期不定,亦多見總理職位為某地同一家族長久把持的例子。清代中期以後臺灣保甲制推行的主要基礎不若閩粵等省在於宗族,而在於街莊總理頭人,此可視為清代閩臺官員針對臺灣保甲施行的努力上所做的設計調整。
This study focused on Taiwan-Fujian district was starting from the practicable aspect of the Bao-Jia(保甲) system (an administrative system organized on basis of households), concerning the stances of country and society, to observed the continuity and uniqueness of Bao-Jia system in both districts with inspecting point of social order. The starting time was mainly around Qing dynasty, from the 47th year of emperor Kang-Si (1708) when the Bao-Jia system announced and implemented around the nation to the 21st year of emperor Guang-Syu (1985), when Taiwan was ceded to Japan. In addition, the relevant historical events were mentioned in this study. Since the emperor Kang-Si govern Taiwan in the Qing dynasty, the population migration between Taiwan and Fujian were extremely active. Despite the implementation of Ao-Jia(澳甲) and Chuan-Jia(船甲) (the Bao-Jia systems at sea), the Bao-Jia system on land also emphasized by the government officers. Under distinct social background, the evolvement of Bao-Jia system in each district presenting different appearance, some of the properties passed to each other, and some were remain different. Across the chaos caused by war at the end of Ming dynasty and beginning of Qing dynasty, the self-disciplined social organizations appeared out of the local society at Fujian mountain districts had been eliminated by the national force at the very first stage of Qing dynasty. Instead of such organizations, officers from Ming dynasty turned into the people in charge of countryside order and Bao-Jia system, not only had certain effect on reintegration of local order but also meant the basic level dominance power of Qing government established in Fujian district gradually. After the ruling of emperor Yong-Jheng, Fujian officers tried all means to let the national force go down into local society in a more effective way, while the Bao-Jia system formed a different picture beyond the imagination of Qing government under the interactive process between the government and the people. From the ruling of emperor Kang-Si to Jia-Qing, Taiwan got a thick property of migration society, the geographical group and clan group were not developed. Therefore, the Bao-Jia systemcould not closely combine with the local society and had a weak influence. After the ruling of emperor Dao-Guang, natural villages like Jie-Jhuang (living and business places for the people) formed as time went by, the Bao-Jia system could finally bring out more functions through the local leader, Jie-Jhuang president(街莊總理). The government authorized the Jie-Jhuang president a semi-official identity, to promote the Bao-Jia affairs. The Jie-Jhuang president had a uncertain administration, and sometimes the position were held by the same clan in a long time. The main foundation of Bao-Jia system promotion in Taiwan after the middle stage of Qing dynasty was not of clan as the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong, but the Jie-Jhuang president. This could be viewed as the design and adjustment made by Taiwan-Fujian officers of Qing dynasty targeting Taiwan Bao-Jia implementation.
Other Identifiers: GN0691220184
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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