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Pao-jia system in Qing Dynasty Fujian and Taiwan area, 1708-1895
This study focused on Taiwan-Fujian district was starting from the practicable aspect of the Bao-Jia（保甲） system (an administrative system organized on basis of households), concerning the stances of country and society, to observed the continuity and uniqueness of Bao-Jia system in both districts with inspecting point of social order. The starting time was mainly around Qing dynasty, from the 47th year of emperor Kang-Si (1708) when the Bao-Jia system announced and implemented around the nation to the 21st year of emperor Guang-Syu (1985), when Taiwan was ceded to Japan. In addition, the relevant historical events were mentioned in this study. Since the emperor Kang-Si govern Taiwan in the Qing dynasty, the population migration between Taiwan and Fujian were extremely active. Despite the implementation of Ao-Jia（澳甲） and Chuan-Jia（船甲） (the Bao-Jia systems at sea), the Bao-Jia system on land also emphasized by the government officers. Under distinct social background, the evolvement of Bao-Jia system in each district presenting different appearance, some of the properties passed to each other, and some were remain different. Across the chaos caused by war at the end of Ming dynasty and beginning of Qing dynasty, the self-disciplined social organizations appeared out of the local society at Fujian mountain districts had been eliminated by the national force at the very first stage of Qing dynasty. Instead of such organizations, officers from Ming dynasty turned into the people in charge of countryside order and Bao-Jia system, not only had certain effect on reintegration of local order but also meant the basic level dominance power of Qing government established in Fujian district gradually. After the ruling of emperor Yong-Jheng, Fujian officers tried all means to let the national force go down into local society in a more effective way, while the Bao-Jia system formed a different picture beyond the imagination of Qing government under the interactive process between the government and the people. From the ruling of emperor Kang-Si to Jia-Qing, Taiwan got a thick property of migration society, the geographical group and clan group were not developed. Therefore, the Bao-Jia systemcould not closely combine with the local society and had a weak influence. After the ruling of emperor Dao-Guang, natural villages like Jie-Jhuang (living and business places for the people) formed as time went by, the Bao-Jia system could finally bring out more functions through the local leader, Jie-Jhuang president(街莊總理). The government authorized the Jie-Jhuang president a semi-official identity, to promote the Bao-Jia affairs. The Jie-Jhuang president had a uncertain administration, and sometimes the position were held by the same clan in a long time. The main foundation of Bao-Jia system promotion in Taiwan after the middle stage of Qing dynasty was not of clan as the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong, but the Jie-Jhuang president. This could be viewed as the design and adjustment made by Taiwan-Fujian officers of Qing dynasty targeting Taiwan Bao-Jia implementation.
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