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Title: 東北亞薩滿信仰與民俗醫療
Northeast Shamanism With Folk Medical Treatment
Authors: 莊吉發
Shimizu, Yumiko
Keywords: 薩滿信仰

The world of Hades
Folk Medical Treatment
Korean) Demon
Issue Date: 2016
Abstract: 本論主要是以東北亞薩滿信仰與民俗療法,以及鬼神與女薩滿的關係, 薩滿字義、來源,東北亞薩滿信仰的靈魂觀念,東北亞薩滿神話比較,從歷 史、宗教、醫療人類學為檢討東北亞薩滿信仰。 薩滿信仰靈魂觀念從萬物有靈開始發展,便產生了animism (萬物有靈論), fetishism (物神崇拜),manaism(超自然魔力論) 等靈魂觀念。從薩滿信仰 的靈魂不滅觀念上,又產生了圖騰崇拜、精靈崇拜,祖先崇拜等文化。本章 主要敘述薩滿信仰中的靈魂觀念,以及薩滿與精靈的關係,比較滿族、朝鮮 族與周邊民族的靈魂觀念與喪禮。 北亞薩滿信仰裡的鬼並不是西方的demon (惡魔)或devil(魔鬼)所象徵 的可怕存在。如果對牠們好的話牠們會保護或回報人類。例如日本祭拜鬼的 大部分的儀式是跟疾病有關的,為了從人類世界去除疾病,需要牠們的幫忙。 這也是東北亞薩滿信仰的特色。另外,東北亞薩滿信仰裡的陰間也不等同於 西方的地獄,甚至有母親子宮裡般的復活空間的意思,在這一章裡檢討東北 亞薩滿信仰裡的鬼與陰間觀念。 東北亞民族的薩滿神話中,常看見薩滿在陰間進行治療或救回靈魂的故 事。這些故事反映了東北亞民族的世界觀和病源探討。從這裡看出科學進步 的現代社會裡薩滿信仰也沒有完全消失的原因。有些學者指出現代醫學和民 俗醫療以及薩滿信仰是互補的存在,並非衝突的。例如現代醫學中,對於只 使用藥物治療的癌症末期病患和不明原因的疾病患者等,薩滿信仰可以減少 他們的不安和痛苦。 檢討現代的醫療人類學來分析薩滿信仰,介紹醫療人類學的各種看法和 理論來判斷薩滿信仰未來的展望。
The notion of spirits in Shamanism began from the belief of all natural objects have souls, this belief generated the theories of Animism, Fetishism and Manaism etc.. The Totemism, Spiritism and Ancestor worship also generated from the notion of immortal spirits in Shamanism. The purpose of this chapter is to narrate the notion of spirits in Shamanism, the relation between shaman and sprite, also to compare the theories of spirits and funeral between Manchurian, Chaoxian and other peripheral ethnic groups. The ghost in north Asian Shamanism dose not equal to the demon or the devil in western culture, and is not considered as an evil existence either. If the ghost was being treated well, it’s believed that the ghost would protect or reward human beings. For example, most of the ghost worships in Japan are related to disease, in order to heal illness, the ghosts or spirits are considered to be needed for help, this is a special part of north Asian Shamanism. Furthermore, the nether world in north Asian Shamanism does not equal to the underworld or the hell in western culture either, it is even considered to be like a womb in a mother or a place for resurrection. The aim of this chapter is to investigate the notion of the ghost and the underworld in north Asian Shamanism. In the north Asian ethnic Shamanism mythology, there are several stories about shaman treating illness in underworld or bringing back a spirit to the living world. Those stories reflected the worldview and the studies of cause of disease from north Asian Shamanism. According to this point of view, it is considered to be one of the reasons that Shamanism does not completely disappear. Some scholars pointed out that modern medical science, folk medicine and Shamanism are existed to complement each other instead of conflicted. For example, when medicine therapy is the only treatment for patients in last stage of cancer or unknown disease, Shamanism is considered to reduce their insecurity and painful feelings. With the method of examining modern medical anthropology for analyzing Shamanism, the different theories and opinions of medical anthropology will be introduced to determine the future and hope of Shamanism.
Other Identifiers: G0896220060
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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