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Northeast Shamanism With Folk Medical Treatment
The world of Hades
Folk Medical Treatment
fetishism (物神崇拜)，manaism(超自然魔力論) 等靈魂觀念。從薩滿信仰
The notion of spirits in Shamanism began from the belief of all natural objects have souls, this belief generated the theories of Animism, Fetishism and Manaism etc.. The Totemism, Spiritism and Ancestor worship also generated from the notion of immortal spirits in Shamanism. The purpose of this chapter is to narrate the notion of spirits in Shamanism, the relation between shaman and sprite, also to compare the theories of spirits and funeral between Manchurian, Chaoxian and other peripheral ethnic groups. The ghost in north Asian Shamanism dose not equal to the demon or the devil in western culture, and is not considered as an evil existence either. If the ghost was being treated well, it’s believed that the ghost would protect or reward human beings. For example, most of the ghost worships in Japan are related to disease, in order to heal illness, the ghosts or spirits are considered to be needed for help, this is a special part of north Asian Shamanism. Furthermore, the nether world in north Asian Shamanism does not equal to the underworld or the hell in western culture either, it is even considered to be like a womb in a mother or a place for resurrection. The aim of this chapter is to investigate the notion of the ghost and the underworld in north Asian Shamanism. In the north Asian ethnic Shamanism mythology, there are several stories about shaman treating illness in underworld or bringing back a spirit to the living world. Those stories reflected the worldview and the studies of cause of disease from north Asian Shamanism. According to this point of view, it is considered to be one of the reasons that Shamanism does not completely disappear. Some scholars pointed out that modern medical science, folk medicine and Shamanism are existed to complement each other instead of conflicted. For example, when medicine therapy is the only treatment for patients in last stage of cancer or unknown disease, Shamanism is considered to reduce their insecurity and painful feelings. With the method of examining modern medical anthropology for analyzing Shamanism, the different theories and opinions of medical anthropology will be introduced to determine the future and hope of Shamanism.
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