人力資本對企業經營效率之影響與跨產業之比較分析—共同邊界法與階層化Tobit迴歸之應用

Date
2012
Authors
李翊琴
Lee Yi Chin
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Abstract
人力資本對於企業經營之經營效率扮演重要的角色,產業企業經營對於人力資本的依賴程度亦有所不同,本研究嘗試引入生產經濟學之經營效率的分析模式,來探討不同產業環境條件對於經營效率、人力資本對於經營效率、以及不同產業之人力資本對於經營效率的影響程度,期待對於人力資本在企業經營的角色提出更豐富的發現。 本研究運用生產函數的概念進行跨產業之比較分析,以兩階段的方式進行研究分析,於第一階段研究選取薪資費用、員工人數、固定資產共三項為投入項,以營業收入淨額和市值共兩項為產出項,運用資料包絡分析法(DEA)規劃出不同產業的生產邊界得到其組別邊界效率,再利用共同邊界分析法,以得到一條包含所有產業的生產邊界之共同邊界效率,並求得其技術缺口。另外,於第二階段研究則運用Tobit迴歸分析來研究人力資本與企業其他環境變數對於效率結果的影響分析,以給予不同產業之企業的改善方向建議,以及探討人力資本之重要性議題。 研究結果為不同人力資本變項對於經營效率值的影響不同,而其中以員工平均年資與員工平均教育年數為較佳的研究變數,產業環境對於經營效率值具有顯著差異,而同時考慮產業類別與人力資本交互作用下,得到各產業人力資本變數之影響程度不一致的結果,最後研究跨產業人力資本對於經營效率之影響,結果得知相對於不同產業類別,人力資本變數之影響不同。
The relationship between human capital and organizational performance is one of important issues in the human resource management. This study tries to bring the production economics analysis model into human resource management area, exploreing the affect of industries and human capital conditions to operating efficiency. In this study, data selected from six different industries in Taiwan was used to compare which industry’s human capital indicators were able to significantly predict operating efficiency. The industries are semiconductor, optoelectronics, biotechnology, plastic, textile and electrical machine industry. A content analysis was first applied to review the annual reports of public listed companies from the year 2006 to 2010. We use two stage methods to analysis. In first stage, data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used to examine the optimum efficiency of companies of different industries.Then, Meta-Frontier analysis was used to predict all industies’ companys optimum efficiency. In second stage, Tobit regression analysis was used to test the validities of the human capital and the industries impact on operating efficiency. The final results of this study indicate that different human capital variables have impact on the operating efficiency differences, and different industries also have different impact on the operating efficiency. Furthermore, different industries have different effects of human capital variables to operating efficiency.
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Keywords
人力資本, 共同邊界法, 資料包絡分析法, Tobit迴歸, Human capital, Data envelopment analysis, Metafrontier analysis, Tobit regression analysis
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