Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/94161
Title: 國家、產業與地方社會的形構:馬來亞拿律地域華人社會的形成與變遷(1848-1911)
State and Industry in Shaping of Local Society: The Changes of Chinese Society in Larut, a Mining Frontier of Malaya (1848-1911)
Authors: 陳國川
Chen, Kuo-Chuan
白偉權
Pek, Wee-Chuen
Keywords: 新區域地理學
海外華人
錫礦產業
殖民經濟
拿律
檳城
new regional geography
overseas Chinese
tin mining industry
colonial economy
Larut
Penang
Issue Date: 2016
Abstract: 本研究旨在探討南洋華人社會關係的形構機制,以地理学的觀點為海外華人研究提供一個新的視野。本研究有別於過去以幫群本質分類之論點,企圖以新區域地理學之人—地互動觀點為視角,分別從國家、產業和社會三者的互動關係,檢視身處異域的華人如何因應不斷變化的環境(國家、產業)進行調適,促成社會關係變遷。 本研究將以19世紀中葉至20世紀初,馬來半島地區最主要的錫礦產區(產業)拿律為例,探究拿律地區在歷經長達十多年的械鬥,經歷了馬來王國及英殖民政府兩個不同的政權,最終於19世紀末始趨於穩定,當中國家、產業和社會所扮演的角色及其互動關係。本研究將分為三大部份進行論述。 首先探究拿律地區由於殖民經濟的發展,遂在馬來封地上所形成的華人社會,以及錫礦的生產與華人日常生活的鑲嵌,建構出與產業高度重疊的礦區社會。 其次,在馬來封地主的放任治理下,華人透過錫礦產銷體系的運作、天地會制度,以及日常公系統(信仰、葬地等)的建立,使各種角色的華人維繫成為一個關係緊密、跨方言群、跨區域(檳城—拿律)的龐大生命共同體—「港門體系」。這個高度依賴不可更新資源維生的生命共同體在面對資源枯竭及土地贍養力不足時,而國家又無法起到調節的作用,遂發生資源競逐的情形,而持續不斷的衝突最終則導致了英國的介入。 第三部份,當拿律進入英治時期,英政府所推行的各種制度和建設,破壞了舊有華人社會的經濟體系,進而改變既有的產銷結構、維生內容及空間,導致舊有華人關係體系的瓦解,而華人在面對新的「國家」和「產業」環境時,重新建構一組新的社會關係。 本研究認為,社會關係是由國家和產業活動影響下所建構而成。在馬來封地主時期,拿律的華人社會與錫礦產業高度重疊,當時國家力量和產業(土地)的贍養力薄弱,華人關係的組織,經濟因素優於本質因素(例如方言群),社會的一體性高,且內部關係緊密。到了英治時期,社會對單一且不可更新資源為基礎的錫礦產業依賴度降低,加上國家力量和產業(土地)贍養力趨強,使華人關係的組織,本質因素優於經濟因素,社會組織偏向細碎化。雖然這些細碎化的組織之間有所連結及整合,但緊密程度卻大不如前者。
The recent discussion about social relationship of the overseas Chinese in 19th century was highly affected by the essentialist view based on the explanation of the nature of place of origin or language per se. This study attempts to approach the aforementioned issue by using the geographical concept of human-land relationship. We intend to focus on the interaction of state, economic activities, and society to examine how Chinese diaspora responded to challenges from these factors for survival. This approach also contributes a new perspective on the fields of Chinese diaspora studies. The study focuses on the case of Larut during mid-19th century to early 20th century. Larut was an important mining frontier in the Northern Malay Peninsula, there was serious dispute among local rival Chinese miners over the control of mining areas for decades, but the relationship of rival factions became stable by the end of 19th century. During the period, Larut had experienced two different regimes. This study consists of three major parts as below: Firstly, this study has examined the formation of Chinese society of Larut under the development of the colonial economy in a Malay feudal state. In addition, we also showed how the mining activities embedded into the everyday life of Chinese miner in the forming of mining society. Secondly, the study focuses on the construction of social linking by operating of tin production and marketing structure, secret society system, and social welfare in daily life under the laissez-faire ruling in the Malay feudal state. These linkages enable Chinese of different backgrounds integrate into “kong-moon System”, a fate community consists of multi-dialect and cross-region (Penang-Larut) groups. This fate community highly dependent on the non-renewable resource (tin), once the resources became depleted, the carrying capacity cannot afford the needs of consumers, the rule no longer served its conciliatory function anymore, the two factions would fight for their subsistent resource. The continuous disputes eventually brought about the British intervention. The third part will concentrate on the changes of Chinese society under the British’s rule. Discussing how Chinese production and marketing structure, economic field and scope of activities affected by the intervention of the colonial power, which had hastened the disintegration of the “kong-moon System” based relationship. Henceforth Chinese forced to adapt themselves in order to meet the new challenges of the new order, this adaption was also the main factors in reshaping social relationship. This study finds that social relationship is highly dependent on the nature of state and economic activity. During the Malay feudal period, the economic activity of Chinese society was highly overlapping in a single industry (tin mining). The weakness of state and carrying capacity of economic activity would affect the economic become the main factor in the social linkage rather than nature of origins or dialect groups (essentialism), the unity of social is strong. In the British colonial period, the reliance on single, non-renewable resource based industry had reduced. In addition, along with strengthening of state power and conditions of carrying capacity, the essential factors will become more important than the economic linkage conversely, the social will also tend to fragmentize.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22G080023001L%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/94161
Other Identifiers: G080023001L
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