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Title: 高功能自閉症兒童情緒語調的表達
The Verbal Intonation of Expressive Emotion in Children with High-Function Autism
Authors: 劉惠美
Huei-Mei Liu
Yi-Ru Chen
Keywords: 高功能自閉症
high function autism
acoustic analysis
perceptual accuracy
Issue Date: 2009
Abstract: 摘要 本研究的目的在於比較國小高功能自閉症男童和一般年齡配對兒童情緒語調的聲學特徵和聽知覺判斷的正確率與反應時間是否有差異,以瞭解高功能自閉症兒童以口語表達情緒語調的能力。研究對象為18名台北縣市8到12歲高功能自閉症兒童,及18位性別、生理年齡配對的一般發展兒童。 採用情緒誘發故事圖卡和情緒語音示範帶兩種方式分別誘發兩組兒童自發性說話和模仿性說話的語音樣本,使用聲學分析軟體praat分析口語語句的平均基本頻率、基本頻率範圍、時長和平均振幅,以瞭解兩組兒童在情緒語調上的聲學差異,並使用E-prime軟體測量兩組兒童的情緒語調在知覺上被正確判斷的比率和反應時間。 研究結果顯示,在聲學方面,相較於一般發展兒童的表現,自閉症組自發性說話時的音調變化範圍較小,較缺乏語調的抑揚頓挫,且無法掌握「難過」情緒的時長最長、「生氣」情緒的時長最短的語調聲學特性;在模仿性說話時,其口語語句的音調較一般發展兒童低沈,且較缺乏抑揚頓挫的變化,但在時長方面則未出現異常。在知覺研判方面,自閉症組自發性說話情緒語調的整體聽知覺正確率低於一般發展兒童,其中「生氣」情緒的聽知覺正確率明顯低於一般發展兒童,「生氣」和「難過」情緒也需花更多的時間才能被一般聽話者正確辨識;在模仿性說話時,各個不同情緒類別的聽知覺正確率也都低於一般發展兒童。在兩種不同誘發作業下,自閉症組情緒語調表現的聽知覺正確率都比一般發展組差,顯示一般聽話者較難判斷自閉症兒童的情緒表達類別。 同時,對自閉症兒童來說,適當的情緒語調表達可能需要更長時間的內化與練習,不易因一次的立即聽覺示範而影響自閉症兒童情緒語調表達的可辨識度。研究結果建議針對自閉症兒童的情緒語調表達問題,設計運用不同情緒語調聲學特性的視覺化線索,以期增進自閉症兒童的情緒語調表達。
The main purpose of this study was to compare the acoustics characteristics, perceptual accuracy and reaction time of emotional intonation’ in children with High-Function autism(HFA) and with normal controls (ctrl). The subjects were 8 to 12 year-old students living in Taipei City and County area. The age and gender were matched in both groups. Utterances elicited by spontaneous reading story and by imitating with tape were analyzed by quantifying acoustics features (mean fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency rage, duration and mean amplitude) by the speech analyzing program PRAAT. The subjective perceptual judges of produced emotion category (happy, sad, or angry) and reaction time were measured by using E-prime. The results showed that in spontaneous task, autistic subjects had more restricted rage of fundamental frequency variation, especially, they couldn’t show the distinguish of “sad” and “angry” by varying the utterance duration. For the perceptual judges, the verbal intonation of autistic subjects were perceptually judged more poorly on overall perceptual accuracy than ctrls. In imitation task, autistic subjects also had more restricted range of fundamental frequency and poorer subjective ratings than ctrls, but there was no difference on duration. Neither HFA nor ctrls performed better in repetition task than in the spontaneous speech. This study suggested that autistic children had an impoverished ability to express emotion by using verbal intonation, and the one-time model-imitation task did not improve their ability. It is possible for the future studies to apply the visualization strategy and to emphasize the crucial acoustic feature of various emotional intonations when teaching autistic children using proper verbal intonation to express their emotion.
Other Identifiers: GN0696090211
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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