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The potential and tendency of creativity and the mediation effect of creative self-efficacy in different developmental stages
latent profile analysis
Present study aims at understanding the cognitive potential and disposition tendency of creativity for the students in different development stages as well as their creativity development in quantity and styles. It also discusses the mediation effect of creative self-efficacy to the cognitive potential and disposition tendency of creativity in different development stages and taking teenager as instance. Study 1, it recruited 1185 junior high and senior high school students from the northern, central, southern, and eastern areas of Taiwan by convenience sampling and cluster sampling, including 49.2% male and the percentage of valid questionnaires was 80.94%. The sample for analysis also included two data from previous studies, including 194 college students and 2931 students from junior high and elementary schools; total sample was 4310 people. In study 2, there was 507 participants by convenience sampling from study 1. The study tools were the Creativity Assessment Packet, the figure part of new tests of creative thinking, and the creative self-efficacy scale. As for the methods of study 1, it was multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and trend analysis to understand the difference and developmental trends by age stages, then discussing the profile of creativity by the latent profile analysis (LPA) in general, and examine the difference of normal distribution by age stages with the chi-squared test; regarding the methods of study 2, it was t-test for understanding the difference of creative self-efficacy by age stages, then author used hierarchical regression and bootstrapping mothed to investigate the mediation effect of creative self-efficacy to divergent thinking and creativity tendency in developmental stages. Results show that: (1). the cognitive potential and tendency of creativity were distinguished from elementary school to college stages. Among the indices of fluency, flexibility, originality, risk taking, curiosity, imagination, and complexity, it shows linear tendencies except the risk taking. In particular, the tendencies of fluency, flexibility, and originality were significantly and steadily ascending in every developmental stages; risk taking was not different by the stages, curiosity, imagination, and complexity were significant different between junior high and senior high schools as well as showing mild linear tendency. (2). The four styles of creativity tendencies could be revealed by profiling the indices of fluency, flexibility, originality in figure divergent thinking test and the indices of risk taking, curiosity, imagination, complexity in the Creativity Assessment Packet. These four styles are “super cognition-high affection (Sco-Haf) ”, “high cognition-low affection (Hco-Laf)”, “mid-low cognition-high affection (Mco-Haf)”, “low cognition-low affection (Lco-Laf)”. (3). The distributions of four styles are distinguished from every development stages, elementary school, junior high school, senior high school, and college stgaes. From elementary stage to junior high school stage, the styles of Sco-Haf and Hco-Laf increase but Lco-Laf decreases; from junior high school stage to senior high school stage, the styles ofSco-Haf, Hco-Laf, and Mco-Haf increase but Lco-Laf decreases; from senior high school stage to college stage, the styles of Sco-Haf and Hco-Laf increase butMco-Haf and Lco-Laf decrease. (4). The Senior high school group scored higher than junior high school group in the new tests of creative thinking and “creative thinking strategies”, “creative product belief”, but two groups were not different in “withstanding negative evaluation”. (5) as for the mediation effect of creative self-efficacy to divergent thinking and creativity tendency, it was significant in junior high school and senior high school groups, but the sobel test of mediation effect for junior high school group was higher. The creative self-efficacy has different influence in each development stages. The author suggests the directions of creativity education in developmental stages according to the research results.
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