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Title: 台灣社會升學主義的發展與解決對策(1945-2007)
The Education Rush in Taiwan since the late 1940s
Authors: 崔光宙
Hwang, Tsung-mu
Keywords: 升學主義
the Education Rush
social change
educational opportunity
Issue Date: 2008
Abstract: 摘 要 就當代臺灣史而言,升學主義是一個影響至為深遠的社會與教育課題,它伴隨著現代化的腳步,在經濟日益發展、中高等教育持續擴充、區域差距與社會階層化逐漸明顯的變遷中,交引纏繞於學制及升學機制而不斷演進,跨越不同世代,成為六十年間眾人共有的成長經驗及歷史記憶。 為了爭取珍貴的升學機會、追求高教育成就,期望獲得良好的職業與前途,自民國三○年代後期起,越來越多的家長、學生,乃至教師無不殫精竭智,發展出許多謀求成功,但卻經常是「反教育」的競爭策略。社會輿論和政府擔心此問題危及國家建設、社會風氣,與教育理想,率以「升學主義」指稱、批判之,並且推動許多政策試圖消弭、導正。然而,對升學主義的機轉、內涵始終不明究底,不少政策本身也在有意無意間符應升學主義的邏輯,結果總是事倍功半,甚至治絲益棼。 升學主義之能發展,乃因雜揉傳統和現代化於一身,民眾與政府的工具性行動更助長之,數十年間遂出現「菁英化—大眾化—普及化」的趨勢,始終不衰。 持平而論,升學主義也具有正面意義,然其負面作用太大,故廣受撻伐,卻又難以消除。就其負面作用之減抵而言,最佳之道毋寧回歸「辦好學校教育」本務,這遠比在學制或升學機制中煞費心血,更能獲取關鍵效果。
Abstract This dissertation reviews sources both bases on official and personal records and researches which are related to the causes and effects of the Education Rush in Taiwan since the late 1940s. There are two perspectives from which the Education Rush is analyzed. Firstly, the Education Rush refers to a great activity and enthusiasm among common people for being admitted to higher schools, which eventually lead to better jobs, higher income, and even an elevated social status in the future. The effects of the Education Rush were substantial. The phenomenon dominated over generations. Its contribution towards human capital and economical development was praised. However, it also resulted in butter competition and pressure. People developed more sophisticated strategies of competition that were effective but anti-educational. Secondly, the government got involved in the Education Rush. The government took advantage of industrialization and economic growth rapidly during the latter half of the twentieth century and devoted itself to establishing schools so as to implement the equality of educational opportunity. The interaction between educational expansion attracted people to be educated and rising educational aspiration supported the education in contemporary Taiwan was evident. In fact, not only tradition but also modernization contributed to all that. The higher people’s educational aspirations were, the more serious the pressure of entering higher schools was. The government tried to solve the problem through various approaches including educational institution, examination system, entrance schemes, and educational reforms. Most of these educational reform policies during the past decades were not based on localized research but on general impressions, confused intentions, or foreign experiences. The government developed more sophisticated strategies of anti-competition, which were educational, or rather political or economical. However, it could not satisfy educational demand, reduce the pressure of entering higher schools, or improve the quality of education. The Education Rush is not an action of fanaticism but of instrument rationality. It starts from credentialism and gradually gets entangled with the educational institution, examination system, and entrance schemes. Hence, it seems endless. If we are to reduce negative effects of the Education Rush, continuous educational reform is necessary. We must reflect on the educational value of that end, and enrich school life for students.
Other Identifiers: GN0888000130
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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