Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/89451
Title: 四位國民中學校長領導心智模式之研究
Mental Models of Leadership in Four Junior High School Principals
Authors: 潘慧玲
Hui-Ling Pan
蘇千惠
Chien-Hui Su
Keywords: 領導心智模式
核心信念
隱性知識
基模
初任校長
資深校長
mental model of leadership
core belief
tacit knowledge
schema
novice principal
expert principal
Issue Date: 2005
Abstract: 自1980年以來,無論國外蔚為風潮的學校重整或國內十年以來的教育改革,均揭示教育改革與校長領導轉變的重要性。在校長領導的相關研究裡,過去的研究多半強調特質理論、領導方式與權力型式等,然而採用認知觀點企圖了解校長對訊息與資訊的擷取,以及核心信念如何對領導行為產生影響的研究卻是少之又少。近幾年來,持認知取徑觀點的學者相當重視這個議題,期待了解領導者如何運用其心智模式綜理校務,找出領導行為背後的認知、核心信念,其知覺而處理的問題類型,而能為校長領導找出一條正確的變革之路。因此,這些因應教改而生且與校園生態密切相關的問題,均可自校長領導心智模式的研究中被了解。藉由校長言行的觀察,研究校長如何使用隱性知識,並發揮校長治校重要的影響力。基於此,本研究邀請了四位倍受教育局與專家學者推薦的國民中學校長,藉由他們的參與,了解他們的領導心智模式如何形成,並且主導其對問題的解決。在研究方法上,本研究以訪談為主,以短期的觀察、文件分析、反思札記為輔,對四位校長進行了領導心智模式之影響因素、內涵、執行與形成歷程的探究,最後提出本研究的結論與建議。 根據研究結果,提出本研究的結論如下: 壹、成長歷程與行政經驗深刻影響校長的領導心智模式。 貳、組織脈絡對校長領導心智模式的運作具有影響性與限制性。 參、基模內涵的完整是領導心智模式發揮優質影響力的起點。 肆、領導心智模式中核心信念是領導目標聚焦的關鍵。 伍、初任校長仰仗人物、資深校長仰仗經驗直覺來關注每日訊息。 陸、領導心智模式發展有三大取向—行政領導、課程領導、兩者交 融。 柒、具有反思習慣是校長優質領導的重要關鍵。 捌、典範校長對校長領導心智模式造成重要影響。 基於上述的結論,本研究提出對主管教育行政機關、國民中小學校長,以及後續相關研究的建議: 壹、對主管教育行政機關的建議  一、增強行政領導之專業研習的質與量。 二、廣泛舉辦典範校長的理念與經驗分享。 三、加強校長領導師徒制的實質內涵。 貳、對國民中小學校長的建議 一、領導心智模式圖的嘗試示現。 二、個人反思習慣的建立。 三、個人記憶系統的管理。 四、智庫與人際支持網絡的建立。 參、對後續相關研究的建議 一、研究主題:可再對問題解決、知覺策略、初任與資深、領 導型態等主題作進一步的探索。 二、研究對象:延展學校層級,或將對象縮小至小團體領導者 的研究。 三、研究方法:加強田野觀察與非正式訪談,或進行紮根理論 研究。 四、研究倫理:宜與研究參與者作充分的溝通,隨時地修正自 己的研究方法或態度。
Since 1980s, both the school restructuring abroad and the domestic educational policies have emphasized the importance of educational reform and the change in the principals’ leadership. Most studies of principals’ leadership stressed the trait theory, leading styles, power models and so on. However, there were few studies that adopted cognitive approach attempting to understand what messages and information principals picked up, and how principals’ core belief affected their leading behaviors. In recent years, scholars conducting the viewpoint of cognitive approach pay much attention to these issues and they expect to understand how leaders use their mental models to solve problems of school administration. They want to find out principals' cognition, core belief, and the problem types which principals perceive and deal with behind their leading behaviors. Thus, they can figure out a better way for principals to adjust their leading behaviors. In the studies of principals’ mental models of leadership, we can understand the problems that arisen from educational reform and are closely related to the ecology of the campus. By observing principals’ speeches and behaviors, I investigated how principals use their tacit knowledge, and how they exert influences when managing schools. To complete my study, I invited four junior high school principals recommended by the bureau of education and educational experts to join my project. With their participation, my study attempted to examine how the four principals form their mental models of leadership, and use the models on problem solving. As for the methodology of the study, I collected data mainly from interviews and used short-term observations, documents analysis, and journal reflection to complement my study on the influential factors, content, the operation, and the formative course of mental models of leadership in the four principals. What follows are the conclusions and suggestions of this study. According to the result of my study, conclusions are as follows: 1. The growing-up course and the administrative experiences of principals greatly influence their mental models. 2. The context of school organization influences and limits the operation of principals’ mental models. 3. The completeness in mental model of leadership is the origin of having high-quality influence for principals. 4. The core belief in principals’ mental model of leadership is the key to focus leadership goals. 5. The novice principals rely on personages to get everyday messages, while expert principals rely on experiences and intuitions to get everyday messages. 6. The development of mental model of leadership has three main orientations—the administrative leadership, the curriculum leadership, and the mix of the two. 7. Having habits to reflection is an important key for principals to have high-quality leadership. 8. The model principals have significant influence on principals’ mental model of leadership. On the basis of above-mentioned conclusions, my study proposes some suggestions for the administrative institutions of education, the elementary and junior high school principals, and the follow-up studies: 1. Suggestions for the administrative institutions of education: (1)Enhancing the quality and quantity of workshops of administrative leadership. (2)Encouraging model principals to share their ideals and experiences. (3)Enriching the content of the apprenticeship of principal leadership. 2. Suggestions for the elementary and junior high school principals: (1)Trying to show the mental model of leadership. (2)Making reflection as a habit. (3)Managing personal memory system. (4)Building think tanks and interpersonal networks. 3. Suggestions for the follow-up studies: (1)The theme of study: more exploring the themes of the problem solving, conscious strategies, novice and expert, and type of leadership. (2)The object of study: extending to the schools’ levels, or narrowing the object to the small groups' leaders. (3)The method of study: strengthening the observation of field and informal interview, or adopting the study of grounded theory. (4)The ethics of study: having enough communication with participants of study and revising our study approach or attitude at any time.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22G0069100033%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/89451
Other Identifiers: G0069100033
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