Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/89418
Title: 國民中學學校革新的社會動力研究
A Study of Social Dynamics in Junior High School Innovation
Authors: 謝文全博士
吳明清博士
Wen-Chyuan Hsieh
Ming-Chin Wu
李玉惠
Yuh-Huey Lee
Keywords: 學校革新
社會動力
動力來源
推動策略
抗拒與因應
school innovation
social dynamics
motive forces
promotion strategies
resistance & overcoming resistance
Issue Date: 2003
Abstract: 國民中學學校革新之社會動力研究 摘 要 本研究透過文獻探討、問卷調查、訪談等方法,探討民國八十六年以來,臺灣地區國民中學學校革新的社會動力,分析國中革新的層面與成效、國中革新社會動力來源與推動策略及其成效、學校內外因素對革新的影響程度、相關人員抗拒革新的程度、抗拒革新的原因、抗拒的方式、行政人員處理抗拒的策略,以及預防或減輕抗拒革新策略之成效,並根據研究發現與結論,提出建議,供相關單位與人員參考。本論文只要研究對象是臺灣地區國中的學校校長、行政人員和教師,共計訪談15位校長、教師和行政人員;問卷調查共涉及12個縣市98所學校,合計992人,回收有效問卷的百分比率是83%;並且與不同縣市國中校長,進行十二次小型團體對話,每次十至十五位校長, 蒐集學校革新社會動力資料。研究結論與建議如下: 一、研究結論: 1.民國八十六年以來,國民中學已經有些革新,其中教學革新大於行政革新;革新也已發揮一些成效,惟其成效仍屬有限。 2.民國八十六年以來,國中教學革新和行政革新趨向,已清楚顯示係由統一規範轉為多元開放,由孤立固定轉為合作發展。 3.國中革新多源自於目的追尋、機械決定和自然演化;每種動力來源均有些成效,其中以目的追尋和自然演化之成效較高。 4.國中革新時會運用多元推動策略,較常使用價值統合、溝通說服和教育成長;而其中以溝通說服和教育成長之成效比較高些。 5.國中革新時,受學校內外因素影響程度頗大;而校內因素的影響程度略高於校外因素,其中以學校經費和設備影響最大。 6.國中革新時,有關人員都會有些抗拒;而校內人員的抗拒程度略大於校外人員;在校內人員中以教師的抗拒程度比較高。 7.國中革新時,有關人員會表現多樣的抗拒方式,惟間接抗拒略高於直接抗拒;行政人員則較多用積極疏通和釋放善意作處理。 8.國中革新時,引起相關人員抗拒的原因相當多而複雜;惟亦有很多種策略可以有效預防或減輕成員對革新的抗拒。 9.不同背景的國中,在學校革新的社會動力各方面,大致而言是大同小異;其中大部分無顯著差異,只有小部分細目達到顯著差異。 10.不同職務人員,對國中學校革新的社會動力之知覺,大致上大同小異;惟校長對各項成效的知覺均高於教師,且達顯著差異。 二、 建議 (一)對教師的建議 1.以自我精進帶動學校革新。 2.以教育家自許豐沛動力泉源。 3.以參與決策匯聚革新動力。 4.以自我實現促進動態革新。 (二)對學校的建議 1.投入更多努力積極推動學校革新。 2.激發源自目的追尋的革新動力。 3.兼用多元推動策略增強革新動力。 4.重視教師反應意見匯聚革新動力。 (三)對教育行政機關的建議 1.提升學校人員革新知能增進革新動力 2.善用預防或減輕成員抗拒策略強化革新動力 3.落實學校本位管理激發學校革新動力。 三、 對後續研究的建議 1.本研究所探討之問題均頗值得作為研究主題。 2.可利用本研究作基礎進行更聚焦的深入研究。 3.研究學校革新的動力必須兼採質與量的方法。 關鍵字:學校革新、社會動力、動力來源、推動策略、抗拒與因應。
A Study of Social Dynamics in Junior High School Innovation Abstract This study used literature review, questionnaire survey and interviews to investigate the social dynamics of junior high school innovation in Taiwan since 1997. The main purposes were to explore the present state and effectiveness of school innovation, its motive forces, promotion strategies, factors of influence as well as those relevant personnel who either resisted or responded positively to the innovation policies. The subjects of this study were the junior high school principals, administrators and teachers in Taiwan. Fifteen principals, administrators and teachers were interviewed. A total of 98 schools in twelve counties were selected and questionnaires of 992 copies were dispatched. 83% of the returned questionnaires were valid. This study also covered 12 different times of more than10 people’s group discussions of the principals from various counties. The conclusions are as follows: 1)Since 1997, the junior high schools in Taiwan have had some innovation in teaching, more so than in administration. Innovation has had some results, but they are not major. 2)The major tendencies in junior high school innovation are changes from uniformity to diversity, from uniform regulations to openness, from isolation of units to cooperation between them, and from fixity to a dynamic state. 3)Junior high school innovation has originated mostly from pursuit of goals, mechanical determinations, and natural evolution. 4)Junior high school innovation must use diverse promotion strategies. Among these, persuasive communication and educational growth have been the more effective. 5)Many factors influenced the innovation, and the strongest factors were school budget and equipment. 6)School personnel resisted innovation; resistance by teachers was greatest. 7)The modes of resistance varied, but there was more indirect resistance than direct resistance; administrative personnel employed mediation and good will to deal with it. 8)Factors that caused resistance were many and complex, but there were many strategies than can be employed to effectively prevent, or to mitigate resistance. 9)Junior high schools in diverse circumstances generally did not show much variation in the various aspects of social dynamics in school innovation. 10)Personnel of varied duties had basically the same perceptions of the social dynamics of Junior high school innovations; only school principals’ consciousness of the effectiveness of the innovations was consistently higher than that of teachers. 11)Suggestions resulting from the research conclusions are as follows: A)Teachers must be willing to progress in advancing school reform, drawing upon the abundant resources of energy of an educationalist to join in the decision-making process to gather reform power and to promote dynamic reform. B)Schools must invest even more energy to positively promote school reform, stimulated by the reform dynamic of pursuit of goals, and at the same time using diverse promotion strategies to strengthen the reform dynamic, and valuing the reactive opinions of teachers in order to gather innovation energy. C)Administrative offices should raise school personnel’s consciousness to strengthen the reform dynamic, and use appropriate measures to prevent or mitigate resistance to innovation, to put into effect management measures. Key word:school innovation; social dynamics; motive forces; promotion strategies; resistance; overcoming resistance.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22G0000S04228%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/89418
Other Identifiers: G0000S04228
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