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The Study on the Effects of Solution-Focused Group Guidance on Cessation among the Students of Vocational High Schools: Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviors
theory of planned behaviors
The purposes of this study were to develop a feasible cessation group guidance program and to explore the effects of the program intervention among the smoking students of vocational high schools. The study adopt the unequal quasi-experiment, with two private vocational high schools in Taipei City being purposely selected. The subjects included an experimental group (10 students), an in-school control group (10 students), and an out-school group (13 students). The group guidance program was designed by using the Theory of Planned Behaviors and Solution-Focused Group Guidance by the researcher. The program consisted of six units which included twelve fifty-minutes sessions. The control group didn’t participate in any group guidance.The three groups filled out three-wave questionnaires that included pretest, post test, and post post-test to evaluate the effects of group guidance. In addition, the smoking students were surveyed by telephone six months later to explore retrospectively their smoking status within one, three and six months. The data was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis H test, repeated measures ANOVA, paired t test and contents analyzed. The main findings of the study were as follows: 1. The group guidance intervention could significantly influence the nonsmoking willingness and cessation goal among the experimental group. 2. The group guidance intervention couldn’t significantly influence the knowledge and self-efficacy of cessation and the variables of the Theory of Planned Behaviors among the experimental group. 3. The group guidance intervention couldn’t significantly influence the amount of daily smoking, the rates of reducing smoking, the rates of cessation smoking, and the nicotine dependence among the experimental group. 4. The strategies that the experimental group members used to reduce smoking included self-restraint, the influence of important others, environmental factors, and alternative behaviors. 5. After group guidance, the therapeutic factors of solution-focused group guidance among the experimental group included group support, group learning, group optimism, opportunity to help others, and group empowerment. The study provides the following research suggestions. In terms of practices, it is suggested that cessation program should assist the smoking students to enhance cessation knowledge, promote positive cessation attitudes, improve their interaction with non-smoking peers, reinforce perceived behavioral control and cessation self-efficacy, enhance intention of cessation, and elevate nonsmoking willingness. In addition, schools should promote group guidance and develop supportive environment to help students stop smoking. Future study may involve different age-group smoking students, apply different theories to develop the program of group guidance, strengthen the physical indicators of cessation effects, improve the research tools, use various resources, compare the effects between urban and rural programs, and extend the time for tracking cessation.
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