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Study on the Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Intervention Program for the Military in Kinmen County
Smoking Cessation Program
Health Belief Model
This study developed a program of smoking cessation intervention based on the Health Belief Model and Self-efficacy Theory for military soldiers, and evaluated the effectiveness of this program. This study employed a Quasi-experimental design that includes pretest, posttest and post-posttest with an experiment group and a control group. Totally 100 subjects with smoking habits were recruited from male military personnel at Kinmen Defense Headquarters in Kinmen County, and they were divided equally into two groups. The experimental group received the program of smoking cessation (45 subjects had completed the full program ), but the control group did not. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of this program, a questionnaire and a carbon monoxide (CO) test were performed for each subject in the two groups at stages of pretest, posttest and post-posttest. One-way ANOVA and One-way ANCOVA were used for statistical analysis. The main results were shown as follows. Firstly, the results show that all subjects had the mean age of 21.07 with 5.82 years of smoking habit on average. Among them, 65% subjects had middle level education (including junior and senior high schools). There were 68.4% subjects whose fathers had smoking habits and only 14.7% whose mothers had smoking habits. The average number of cigarette per day was 14.45 with the average CO measurements of 11.94 ppm, which was in the range of the moderate level. Secondly, with the exception of “perceived benefits”, there were significant improvements in the experimental group after the intervention of smoking cessation education in “knowledge of tobacco hazards”, “perceived susceptibility”, “perceived barriers”, “cues to action” and “self-efficacy” regardless of the posttest (1 week after the intervention) or the post-posttest (5 weeks after the intervention) in comparison with the control group. However, the improvement to “perceived severity” was only revealed at the stage of post-posttest. Thirdly, the experimental group had significant decreases in cigarettes per day and CO measurements than those of the control group regardless of the posttest or the post-posttest after the intervention .The rates of quitting smoking reached to 42.2% and 37.8% after the first week and the fifth week respectively from the intervention, indicating the impact and delayed effectiveness of this program of smoking cessation. In conclusion, this program of smoking cessation intervention for military effectively increases smoking cessation rate, and decreases the amount of cigarettes per day. This program can be adopted by Ministry of National Defense-Medical Affairs Bureau to promote the health for military personnel.
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