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The effects of the osteoporosis prevention program on middle-aged and elderly women
middle-aged and elderly women
osteoporosis prevention program
本研究是以社會認知理論、健康信念模式和社會支持理論為依據，內容著重於高鈣食物和負重運動課程，以提升中老年婦女自我照顧的行為能力，分為研究一和研究二兩部分來探討，研究一為探討骨質疏鬆症介入計畫對中老年婦女在骨質疏鬆症知識、健康信念、自我效能、社會支持、高鈣飲食行為、負重運動行為及骨質密度之影響；研究二則探討骨質疏鬆症計畫分別於鄉村地區和城市地區實行，其介入成效是否有差異。此研究對象主要為40歲以上之中老年婦女，共有113位婦女參與，分別為鄉村對照組(38人)、鄉村實驗組I (34人)和城市實驗組II (41人)。實驗組I和實驗組II參與為期八週(2小時/週)之骨質疏鬆症課程，於課程前填寫「骨質疏鬆症預防行為」前測問卷和測量跟骨骨密度，於八週課程結束後填寫後測問卷，跟骨骨質密度則在十二個星期後測量。
According to the Fourth World Conference on Women, it is estimated that the growth of elderly population will largely take place in developing countries, over half of it in Asia by the year 2030. As a result, osteoporosis will rise in Asia, including Taiwan. Therefore, it is important to develop a prevention program regarding osteoporosis for middle-aged and elderly women. This study was guided by Social Cognitive Theory, Health Belief Model and Social Support Theory. The program contents were mainly focused on calcium-rich foods and weight-bearing exercise that would increase behaviors for better self-care on middle-aged and elderly women. This program consisted of Study 1 and Study 2. Study 1 was to assess the effects of knowledge, health belief, self-efficacy, social support, calcium-rich foods intake, weight-bearing exercise, and bone mass density (BMD) of the osteoporosis prevention program on middle-aged and elderly women between experimental and control groups at rural site. Study 2 was to assess the effects of the osteoporosis prevention program between rural and urban sites. Recruited participants were total 113 middle-aged and elderly women that were aged 40 and above. Eventually, program recruited three groups, including Control group in rural site (38 women), Treatment I group in rural site (34 women), and Treatment II group in urban site (41 women). The Treatment I and the Treatment II groups intervened in the eight-week osteoporosis prevention program (two hour/week). Two groups completed the pre-test osteoporosis prevention behaviors questionnaires and assessed heel BMD followed by the osteoporosis prevention program. Eight weeks later, they completed the post-test questionnaires, and heel BMD was assessed after twelve weeks. The results were as follows: 1. The Treatment I group for knowledge, health belief, self-efficacy, social support, calcium-rich foods intake, weight-bearing exercise, and BMD significant was better than the Control group. 2. The effects between the Treatment I and the Treatment II groups were not significant, except the social support score was higher in the Treatment I group than in the Treatment II group. This study could effectively increase osteoporosis-related knowledge, health belief, self-efficacy, social support, calcium-rich foods intake, weight-bearing exercise, and BMD; and demonstrate positive effects on both rural and urban sites. Therefore, this program may provide a basis for future osteoporosis prevention programs on middle-aged and elderly women, and may assist in developing practical health prevention programs that conform to the requirements of middle-aged and elderly women. It not only can prevent and improve osteoporosis, but also can reduce social resources that osteoporosis consumed.
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