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標題: 共讀童書文字指引策略對幼兒認字及認字後設語言能力之影響
作者: 張鑑如
陳惠茹
關鍵字: 文字指引策略
共讀
認字
書本及文字覺識
詞素覺識
print referencing
shared book reading
word recognition
print awareness
morphological awareness
公開日期: 2012
摘要: 本研究以94位就讀於桃園縣龜山鄉公私立托兒所3至5歲幼兒為對象,探討成人採用文字指引策略帶領共讀活動對幼兒認字及認字後設語言能力的影響。研究分三階段進行,第一階段先前測全體幼兒的一般認字及目標字彙辨識能力、詞素覺識和書本及文字覺識兩項認字後設語言能力,並調查幼兒家庭親子共讀及認字活動情形,依幼兒語言能力發展狀況,均分為實驗組及控制組,各每組各47人。第二階段進行童書共讀活動,由研究人員分別對實驗組及控制組的幼兒,採用文字指引策略及對話式共讀方式,於十週期間,每週進行兩次,帶領共讀二十本童書。第三階段進行認字能力、目標字彙辨識、詞素覺識、書本及文字覺識後測,比較兩組幼兒前後測各項分數的變化,並分析共讀童書文字指引策略對提昇3-6歲不同年齡層幼兒認字各項能力的成效。 帶領實驗組幼兒共讀童書時採用之文字指引策略,主要是以指讀文字的方式引導幼兒對文字的注意力,每次共讀時由書本封面開始,針對書名、作者、插畫家等部分加以說明,並強調閱讀慣例、圖文對照等書本及文字覺識的提示;另從每本童書中各選出二個目標字彙製作字卡,在共讀時另外加強說明其形、音、義,帶領幼兒進行字彙命名,並延伸造詞活動及同音異字的詞素覺識訓練。帶領控制組幼兒時,則以對話式共讀方式進行,運用對話回饋和討論互動的方式,邊說故事邊針對故事角色、情節做提問,要孩子預測情節的發展、或者搭配故事內容和孩子進行生活經驗的延伸討論。 研究結果如下: ㄧ、採用文字指引策略共讀童書較對話式共讀能顯著提升幼兒整體的認字 及認字後設語言能力 共讀活動後,參與實驗組文字指引策略共讀童書活動的幼兒,在一般認字能力、目標字彙辨識能力、詞素覺識、書本及文字覺識等四項分數都呈現進步的情形;控制組幼兒之各項能力,並未全面提升,甚至出現小幅退步的不穩定變化。以多變量共變數分析(MANCOVA)考驗兩組兒童在共讀活動介入後認字能力、目標字彙辨識能力、詞素覺識、書本及文字覺識的前後測分數差異,以幼兒在前測時的認字及認字後設語言能力為共變量進行統計校正,結果發現:實驗組和控制組幼兒整體的認字及認字後設語言能力的分數差有顯著差異(Wilks Λ=.79, F(4,85)=5.78, p=.000),以文字指引策略帶領共讀童書,對提升幼兒認字後設語言能力較對話式共讀具有顯著的效果。 二、共讀童書文字指引策略能提升幼兒認字及目標字彙辨識能力 在進行十週共讀活動後,實驗組幼兒的認字量平均增加5.87(SD=8.08),控制組增加2.89(SD=7.50),以認字前後測的差異分數為依變項,幼兒前測認字及認字後設語言能力做為共變量進行統計校正,多變量共變數分析(MANCOVA)的結果發現實驗組和控制組的認字進步情形有顯著的差異(F(1,88)=5.99,p=.02),若要藉由共讀童書來提昇幼兒的認字能力,以文字指引策略帶領幼兒共讀比採用對話式童書共讀更有成效。 參與共讀活動後,實驗組幼兒對目標字彙辨識能力平均進步1.74分(SD=2.40),控制組進步0.17分(SD=1.07)。以幼兒前測各項認字及認字後設語言能力為共變量,共變數分析的結果顯示實驗組和控制組幼兒前後測辨識目標字彙差(後測-前測)有顯著的差異(F(1,88)=25.27,p=.000)。成人在帶領幼兒共讀童書過程中,特別針對某些字彙的字形、字音、和字義加以說明,並引領幼兒進行字彙的造詞、及同音異字詞素的區辨,可以顯著提昇幼兒對這些目標字彙的辨識能力。 三、共讀童書文字指引策略能提升幼兒的書本及文字覺識 比較在共讀活動前後實驗組和控制組幼兒書本及文字覺識能力的分數改變情形,排除前測階段幼兒各項能力的影響後,兩組幼兒的書本及文字覺識差(後測-前測)有顯著的差異(F(1,88)=22.68,p=.000)有顯著的差異(F(1,91)=9.343,p=.003),其中筆畫及部件進步程度的差異達到顯著的水準,書本概念、閱讀慣例、及文字概念三部分則未達顯著。 以本研究所採用的文字指引策略帶領共讀童書,對增進幼兒之中文字筆畫和部件的知識比對話式共讀具有顯著的成效,也能同時提升幼兒的書本概念、閱讀慣例及文字概念的知識。 四、共讀童書文字指引策略能提昇不同年齡層幼兒認字能力 各年齡層幼兒在參與共讀活動後,認字能力均有進步,3-4歲組平均增 加3.63分(SD=6.42),4-5歲組平均增加6.27(SD=7.09),5-6歲組增加最多,平均增加7.75分(SD=10.15),本研究的文字指引策略帶領共讀,可以增進三個年齡層幼兒的認字能力,但5-6歲幼兒進步的幅度較大。 各年齡層幼兒在參與共讀活動後,對目標字彙辨認分數均有進步,3-4歲組平均增加1.19分(SD=1.47),4-5歲組平均增加2.13(SD=3.34),5-6歲組平均增加1.75分(SD=2.11),以本研究的文字指引策略帶領共讀,可以增進三個年齡層幼兒的目標字彙辨識能力。在共讀活動介入後,4-5歲幼兒進步最多,而這些幼兒也是一般認字能力較佳的一組,顯示原來認字能力較好的幼兒,在參與共讀活動後,能以原來的認字能力為基礎,出現較好的學習效果。 五、共讀童書文字指引策略能提昇不同年齡層幼兒書本及文字覺識能力 在書本及文字覺識能力部分,三個年齡層幼兒在共讀活動後均有進步,3-4歲組平均增加5.31(SD=7.14),4-5歲組增加1.40(SD=3.96),5-6歲組幼兒則平均增加2.56(SD=4.19),3-4歲幼兒進步最大,但三個年齡層幼兒的進步情形並未有顯著的差異。 由書本及文字覺識四個分測驗分析,三個年齡層幼兒在參與共讀活動後,書本概念、閱讀慣例、文字概念三個分測驗分數均有增加,且都是3-4歲幼兒進步幅度最大,而在筆畫及部件部分則是5-6歲幼兒進步最多。
This study examines the effects of using a print referencing strategy during shared storybook reading on preschoolers’ early literacy development, focusing specifically on the domain of Chinese character recognition, and metalinguistic skills related to character recognition, including morphological awareness and print awareness. A total of 94 preschool children of ages 3 to 6 from four nursery schools in Tao-Yuan County participated in the experiment of storybook reading in a period of ten weeks. The study was carried out in three phases. The first phase includes a few steps: first, pretests of children’s word recognition ability and metalinquistic skills of word recognition were completed prior to the experiment; second, a questionnaire was surveyed to each participant on family’s literacy activities in order to assess children’s exposure to storybooks and other word recognition activities; and third, the children were evenly divided into to two groups: an experimental group (i.e., using print referencing reading) and a control group (i.e., using dialogic reading), according to their metalinguistic skills of word recognition and their home literacy experience. The second phase is shared book reading. Children of both groups underwent shared reading with a total of 20 story books guided by adults twice a week for ten consecutive weeks using the methods of print referencing reading and dialogic reading to respective groups. The third phase includes the following activities: (a) to perform a posttest on children’s general word recognition and target words recognition abilities, as well as on morphological awareness and print awareness; (b) to compare the variations of children’s abilities between both groups; and (c) to assess the strategies of shared book reading in enhancing the children’s metalinguistic skills in every associated aspect for children of different ages. When reading with the print referencing strategy, the adults used verbal and nonverbal techniques to heighten children’s attention to, and interest in, print within the storybooks. So, starting with the book cover, every shared reading was emphasized on the book names, the authors, and illustrators. During shared reading, techniques were used and they include pointing along the text while reading, asking questions about the print, instructing the book and print convention, and prompting graphic/text comparison and word awareness. From each storybooks two particular words were selected as target words and they were printed in an enlarged font (for children to see easily) on a cardboard in order to strengthen the illustration of each word’s configuration, sound, and meaning when children come across this specific word during shared reading. These target words were also used for children’s morphological training, and children were asked to induce compound words associated with the target word. As for the children of the control group, shared reading was carried out by dialogic fashion. The reading strategies were using conversation feedback and interactive discussion. Along the story telling, children were asked to question the plots, to predict the development of the plots, or to further discuss children’s daily experience related to the stories. The results of the study are listed as the followings: 1. Shared book reading by print referencing strategy significantly enhances children’s word recognition and metalinguistic skills as compared with dialogue reading. After the shared reading intervention, a multivariate analysis of covariance(MANCOVA, which yields a statistical control for the pretest scores)was conducted to assess children’s gain scores(gain score = posttest score - pretest score)of all measures (i.e., word recognition, target word recognition, morphological awareness and print awareness). The results show that, there is a significant difference between the two groups in overall word recognition and metalinguistic skills of word recognition (Wilks Λ=.79, F(4,85)=5.78, p=.000). This means that adults’ shared reading strategies do make significant differences in pre- and post-experiment tests in young children’s word recognition and metalinguistic skills of word recognition. The children participated in print referencing reading show a significant improvement than that of their counterparts in the dialogic reading group. 2. Print referencing strategy in shared book reading elevates children’s word recognition and target word identification abilities. After 10-week shared reading, children’s gain scores of general word recognition increased by 5.87 (SD = 8.08) for the experimental group while increased by 2.89 (SD = 7.50) for the control group. A multivariate analysis of covariance(MANCOVA)was conducted to assess children’s gain scores of general word recognition. The Results show that a significant difference occurred between the two groups (F(1,88)=5.99,p=.02. It means that print referencing shared reading is more effective than dialogic reading in enhancing children’s word recognition ability. Both groups show an increase in the scores of target word identification after shared reading: an increase of 1,74 (SD = 2.40) for the experimental group, and 0.17 (SD = 1.07) for the control group. By ruling out the effects of pretest scores, both groups show a significant difference of the improvement in their pre- and post-experiment tests regarding target word identification (F(1,88)=25.27,p=.000). During the print referencing reading intervention, adults used character cardboards to instruct the figures, sound, and meaning of target words, and induce morphological construction training which may substantially increase children’s abilities of target word identification. 3. Print referencing strategy in shared book reading elevates children’s print awareness. By ruling out the effects of family parent-child shared reading using multivariate analysis of covariance(MANCOVA), both groups show a significant difference in the gain scores of print awareness (before and after the tests) (F(1,88)=22.68,p=.000). Regarding the four sub-categories of print awareness, there is a significant improvement in recognition of strokes and radicals of Chinese characters. However, aspects associated with concept of book, convention of reading, and concept of word show little improvements. According to the findings of this study, print referencing strategy in shared reading is much more effective to enhance the knowledge of Chinese strokes and radicals; and in the same time, increases the concept of books, convention of reading, and knowledge of word concept, than dialogic reading. 4. Print referencing strategy in shared reading raises the abilities of word recognition for children of every age level. Children of all age levels show improvements after shared reading: an average increase of 3.63 (SD = 6.42) for ages 3 – 4, 6.27 (SD = 7.09) for ages 4 -5, and most notably 7.75 (SD = 10.15) for ages 5 – 6. It shows that the print referencing strategy increases the abilities of word recognition for children of every age level, especially for ages 5 - 6. The children of the experimental group also show a general improvement in target word identification after shared reading: an average increase of 1.19 (SD = 1.47) for ages 3 – 4, 2.13 (SD = 3.34) for ages 4 -5, 1.75 (SD = 2.11) for ages 5 – 6. The print referencing strategy increases the abilities of word recognition for children of every age level. After shared reading, children of ages 4 – 5 improve the most, and they are in general the age level with the best performance in word recognition. It shows that the shared reading further enhances the learning effects for children who have already had a better word recognition ability. 5. Print referencing strategy in shared reading raises the abilities of print awareness for children of every age level. After shared reading of the print referencing strategy, only the children of ages 5 – 6 show an improvement of 2.50 (SD = 10.15) in morphological awareness among the three age levels. In terms of print awareness, children of all three age levels show an improvement after intervention: an average increase of 5.31 (SD = 7.14) for ages 3 – 4, 1.40 (SD = 3.96) for ages 4 -5, 2.56 (SD = 4.19) for ages 5 – 6. Children of ages 3 – 4 show the best improvement; however, there is no significant difference between the pretest and posttest scores. Among the four subtests of print awareness, children of all age levels show improvement in book concept, convention of reading, and word concept after shared reading, especially for age level of 3 – 4. In terms of recognition of word strokes and radicals, age level of 5 – 6 improves the most.
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