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shared book reading
共讀活動後，參與實驗組文字指引策略共讀童書活動的幼兒，在一般認字能力、目標字彙辨識能力、詞素覺識、書本及文字覺識等四項分數都呈現進步的情形；控制組幼兒之各項能力，並未全面提升，甚至出現小幅退步的不穩定變化。以多變量共變數分析（MANCOVA）考驗兩組兒童在共讀活動介入後認字能力、目標字彙辨識能力、詞素覺識、書本及文字覺識的前後測分數差異，以幼兒在前測時的認字及認字後設語言能力為共變量進行統計校正，結果發現：實驗組和控制組幼兒整體的認字及認字後設語言能力的分數差有顯著差異（Wilks Λ=.79, F(4,85)=5.78, p=.000），以文字指引策略帶領共讀童書，對提升幼兒認字後設語言能力較對話式共讀具有顯著的效果。
This study examines the effects of using a print referencing strategy during shared storybook reading on preschoolers’ early literacy development, focusing specifically on the domain of Chinese character recognition, and metalinguistic skills related to character recognition, including morphological awareness and print awareness. A total of 94 preschool children of ages 3 to 6 from four nursery schools in Tao-Yuan County participated in the experiment of storybook reading in a period of ten weeks. The study was carried out in three phases. The first phase includes a few steps: first, pretests of children’s word recognition ability and metalinquistic skills of word recognition were completed prior to the experiment; second, a questionnaire was surveyed to each participant on family’s literacy activities in order to assess children’s exposure to storybooks and other word recognition activities; and third, the children were evenly divided into to two groups: an experimental group (i.e., using print referencing reading) and a control group (i.e., using dialogic reading), according to their metalinguistic skills of word recognition and their home literacy experience. The second phase is shared book reading. Children of both groups underwent shared reading with a total of 20 story books guided by adults twice a week for ten consecutive weeks using the methods of print referencing reading and dialogic reading to respective groups. The third phase includes the following activities: (a) to perform a posttest on children’s general word recognition and target words recognition abilities, as well as on morphological awareness and print awareness; (b) to compare the variations of children’s abilities between both groups; and (c) to assess the strategies of shared book reading in enhancing the children’s metalinguistic skills in every associated aspect for children of different ages. When reading with the print referencing strategy, the adults used verbal and nonverbal techniques to heighten children’s attention to, and interest in, print within the storybooks. So, starting with the book cover, every shared reading was emphasized on the book names, the authors, and illustrators. During shared reading, techniques were used and they include pointing along the text while reading, asking questions about the print, instructing the book and print convention, and prompting graphic/text comparison and word awareness. From each storybooks two particular words were selected as target words and they were printed in an enlarged font (for children to see easily) on a cardboard in order to strengthen the illustration of each word’s configuration, sound, and meaning when children come across this specific word during shared reading. These target words were also used for children’s morphological training, and children were asked to induce compound words associated with the target word. As for the children of the control group, shared reading was carried out by dialogic fashion. The reading strategies were using conversation feedback and interactive discussion. Along the story telling, children were asked to question the plots, to predict the development of the plots, or to further discuss children’s daily experience related to the stories. The results of the study are listed as the followings: 1. Shared book reading by print referencing strategy significantly enhances children’s word recognition and metalinguistic skills as compared with dialogue reading. After the shared reading intervention, a multivariate analysis of covariance（MANCOVA, which yields a statistical control for the pretest scores）was conducted to assess children’s gain scores（gain score = posttest score - pretest score）of all measures (i.e., word recognition, target word recognition, morphological awareness and print awareness). The results show that, there is a significant difference between the two groups in overall word recognition and metalinguistic skills of word recognition (Wilks Λ=.79, F(4,85)=5.78, p=.000). This means that adults’ shared reading strategies do make significant differences in pre- and post-experiment tests in young children’s word recognition and metalinguistic skills of word recognition. The children participated in print referencing reading show a significant improvement than that of their counterparts in the dialogic reading group. 2. Print referencing strategy in shared book reading elevates children’s word recognition and target word identification abilities. After 10-week shared reading, children’s gain scores of general word recognition increased by 5.87 (SD = 8.08) for the experimental group while increased by 2.89 (SD = 7.50) for the control group. A multivariate analysis of covariance（MANCOVA）was conducted to assess children’s gain scores of general word recognition. The Results show that a significant difference occurred between the two groups （F(1,88)=5.99，p=.02. It means that print referencing shared reading is more effective than dialogic reading in enhancing children’s word recognition ability. Both groups show an increase in the scores of target word identification after shared reading: an increase of 1,74 (SD = 2.40) for the experimental group, and 0.17 (SD = 1.07) for the control group. By ruling out the effects of pretest scores, both groups show a significant difference of the improvement in their pre- and post-experiment tests regarding target word identification （F(1,88)=25.27，p=.000）. During the print referencing reading intervention, adults used character cardboards to instruct the figures, sound, and meaning of target words, and induce morphological construction training which may substantially increase children’s abilities of target word identification. 3. Print referencing strategy in shared book reading elevates children’s print awareness. By ruling out the effects of family parent-child shared reading using multivariate analysis of covariance（MANCOVA）, both groups show a significant difference in the gain scores of print awareness (before and after the tests) （F(1,88)=22.68，p=.000）. Regarding the four sub-categories of print awareness, there is a significant improvement in recognition of strokes and radicals of Chinese characters. However, aspects associated with concept of book, convention of reading, and concept of word show little improvements. According to the findings of this study, print referencing strategy in shared reading is much more effective to enhance the knowledge of Chinese strokes and radicals; and in the same time, increases the concept of books, convention of reading, and knowledge of word concept, than dialogic reading. 4. Print referencing strategy in shared reading raises the abilities of word recognition for children of every age level. Children of all age levels show improvements after shared reading: an average increase of 3.63 (SD = 6.42) for ages 3 – 4, 6.27 (SD = 7.09) for ages 4 -5, and most notably 7.75 (SD = 10.15) for ages 5 – 6. It shows that the print referencing strategy increases the abilities of word recognition for children of every age level, especially for ages 5 - 6. The children of the experimental group also show a general improvement in target word identification after shared reading: an average increase of 1.19 (SD = 1.47) for ages 3 – 4, 2.13 (SD = 3.34) for ages 4 -5, 1.75 (SD = 2.11) for ages 5 – 6. The print referencing strategy increases the abilities of word recognition for children of every age level. After shared reading, children of ages 4 – 5 improve the most, and they are in general the age level with the best performance in word recognition. It shows that the shared reading further enhances the learning effects for children who have already had a better word recognition ability. 5. Print referencing strategy in shared reading raises the abilities of print awareness for children of every age level. After shared reading of the print referencing strategy, only the children of ages 5 – 6 show an improvement of 2.50 (SD = 10.15) in morphological awareness among the three age levels. In terms of print awareness, children of all three age levels show an improvement after intervention: an average increase of 5.31 (SD = 7.14) for ages 3 – 4, 1.40 (SD = 3.96) for ages 4 -5, 2.56 (SD = 4.19) for ages 5 – 6. Children of ages 3 – 4 show the best improvement; however, there is no significant difference between the pretest and posttest scores. Among the four subtests of print awareness, children of all age levels show improvement in book concept, convention of reading, and word concept after shared reading, especially for age level of 3 – 4. In terms of recognition of word strokes and radicals, age level of 5 – 6 improves the most.
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