Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/87150
Title: 童「畫」與童「話」:幼兒繪畫活動中圖像和語言交相建構現象之探究
The reciprocal construction of young children’s visual and verbal representations during children’s drawing activities
Authors: 簡淑真
Chien, Shu-Chen
顏肇基
Yen, Chao-chi
Keywords: 自我中心語言
繪畫活動
表徵
語言表徵
圖像表徵
命名與宣告
ego-centric speech
drawing activities
representation
verbal representation
visual representation
naming and proclaiming
Issue Date: 2010
Abstract: 繪畫乃是另一種型式的語言傳達,圖像可以用來表徵具象的事物,同樣的也可以表徵抽象的意念與思維。對於繪畫能力正處在萌發階段的幼兒來說,繪畫猶如璀璨的童心秘境,欲透視其中的奧秘,了解幼兒所思、所想、所感、所為、所欲、所求,單單透過對幼兒繪畫作品中圖像表徵的理解是不夠的。 綜觀國內外針對幼兒繪畫的研究,多著重孩子繪畫技能表現的層面,熱衷於針對年齡發展的傾向、類型、水準進行系統性的敘述或分類,或聚焦於作品表現形式、內容與主題等的探究,卻忽略幼兒繪畫歷程中社會互動歷程的重要性,並無法領略圖像表徵建構之外,語言表徵對於圖像表徵在建構歷程中的深遠意義。 為求對幼兒繪畫歷程有更全面的了解,本研究採取質性研究方法,以樺園國小(化名)附設幼稚園新月班(化名)為研究現場,從2006年10月4日到2007年6月29日,進行為時一學年的觀察與研究,聚焦於幼兒在繪畫活動中,與同儕、教師或其他重要成人互動之下,幼兒圖像與語言表徵交互建構的現象,透過對現場觀察、訪談、圖畫作品以及相關資料的質性分析,進一步尋繹出這些童「畫」與童「話」交相建構的意義。 研究結果發現:其一,幼兒繪畫歷程中普遍呈現對圖像進行命名與宣告現象。無論是在圖像尚未畫出之前、圖像正著手建構中或者圖畫完成之後,幼兒可能出現頻繁的命名與宣告的現象。幼兒繪畫中的命名與宣告具有對幼兒的繪畫進行解釋、補充、預告、計劃的功能,藉此幼兒也表達出自我的意念與慾望,除了做為一種溝通與解釋的途徑之外,具創意性的命名,更呈現出幼兒的創意表現。 其二,幼兒繪畫歷程中頻頻出現的的自言自語現象值得關注,可以區分為單獨情境以及集體式的自言自語,兩種狀態有時候分辨會有困難,依現場的實際觀察發現:應依照個人內容的連貫性進行判斷。自言自語時的話語,對於繪畫具有引導、修正、調整的作用,有時則具有解釋、說明、鋪陳繪畫情境的功用;而於建構歷程中,圖像又可以成為語言的前導、中介,也做為語言實踐的具體軌跡,可以說是幼兒當下所思、所想、所感的凝結,透過這些自言自語的過程,似乎具體化了幼兒短暫敘事的發生史。 其三,幼兒繪畫中與他人的互動,呈現幼兒在知識、技巧、創意、情緒等方面發展的意義。透過幼兒繪畫歷程中圖像與語言表徵的建構,有助於幼兒知識性、技巧性、創意性的討論與對話,激發幼兒近側發展區,提昇幼兒認知、創造力發展的水準;而繪畫過程中,圖像與語言表徵的交互建構,也常常成為幼兒抒發對同儕不滿、嫌惡情緒的工具,具有情緒、社會發展的意義。 總之,對幼兒來說,語言表徵經常扮演補足繪畫表徵的功能,而繪畫表徵又進一步扮演語言表徵演繹的依據,如此交相建構,幼兒在繪畫歷程中得以自由、自主的展現其想法、意念、感受,開啟幼兒豐富創造性。是以,幼兒繪畫歷程中,那一張張看似不起眼的畫作所表徵的的綺麗童「畫」,與一句句聽起來平凡的話語表徵出的動人童「話」,往往透露出幼兒心理、認知、情感或者創造力等發展上的意義,透過深入研究與分析,我們洞見了繪畫歷程中,重要他人如家人、同儕 、教師及其他社會與文化因素對幼兒繪畫歷程程正面或負面的影響力,值得藝術教育工作者正視。
Drawing is another type of communication: to represent concrete things or to represent abstract thought. Exploring the development of young children’s drawing abilities is a window for us to understand the children’s thought. But it’s not enough to explore only the children’s drawing representation to reach their thought, feeling and behavior. By literature reviewing, it showed that most of the past researches focused on children’s drawing skills, the development trend by age, or the forms and contents. Rare of the researches concerned about the social interaction processes of children’s drawing activities. So the significance of language representation was usually ignored. The present study used qualitative method to explore children’s development of drawing process. The researcher entered the Shin-Je class for one year to observe children’s interactions with their classmates, teachers or other adults during their drawing activities, to explore the reciprocal construction of the children’s visual and language representations. By analyzing the collected data, the meaning of the reciprocal construction of the children’s drawing and talking were explained. The results showed that, firstly, it’s common for the children to name or to proclaim their drawing topics before, during or after their drawing .For children, the functions of naming and proclaiming were to explain, to supply, to preannounce or to plan their drawings. Children also communicated and explained their thoughts, desires, and creativities through their drawings. Secondly, childen’s ego-centric speech during drawing was noticeable. There were two kinds of ego-centric speech: monologue while drawing alone and monologue while drawing with peers. The consistency of the monologue was the indicator to classify the two kinds of speech. The functions of childen’s ego-centric speech were to guide, adjust, modify, or to explain their drawings. In the process of construction, drawings were the pioneer, mediator, or the actualization of language. Drawings were also the results of children’s thinking and feeling. It seemed that the histories of children’s short narratives were specified by their private speech. Thirdly, the interaction with others during children’ drawing activities showed the developmental meanings of children’s knowledge, skills, creativities, and emotions. The construction of visual and language representation were helpful for children’s discussion and conversation about knowledge, skills and creativities. It could foster children’s zone of the proximal development and raise the level of children’s cognition and creativity. The reciprocal construction of visual and language representation during drawing were also used as tools to express children’s negative feelings. So the values on emotional and social development of the reciprocal construction of visual and language representations were important. To sum up, for young children, verbal representation was usually the complement of visual representation, and the visual representation was also the deduction base of verbal representation. By reciprocal constructing, children expressed their thought, feelings and creativity. So, in the process of children’s drawing activities, the beautiful visual representation of the drawing and the touching verbal representation of their talking were significant in children’s development of cognition, emotion, and creativity. By deeply exploring and analyzing, we got the insight of the influences of family, peers, teachers, and the impacts of social and cultural factors. Worthing the double vision of the people who care about the art education of the young children.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN0890060054%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/87150
Other Identifiers: GN0890060054
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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