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The developmental trajectories of family education in social educational systems in Taiwan
Life Course Theory
The Development Trajectory of the Family Education in the Social Educational System in Taiwan Abstract In this study, the development trajectory of the family education in the social education system in Taiwan is discussed and the life course theory is used as the analysis structure for the study. The main methods adopted for collecting the materials for this study are the referring to the documents of historical study methods, the quantity records and the oral history. The oral history is collected by interviews with 11 persons in total, including the persons that were or are the employees in the family education centers, the officers in the social education organizations and the academics. According to the turning points, the trajectory of the development of the family education in the social education in Taiwan can be divided into three major stages, i.e., the promotion stage of “the parent education” (1986-1998), the promotion stage of “the learning family” (1999-2003), and the promotion stage of “the law-based and the professionalization of Family Education” (after 2003). The three major stages of the development of the family education are analyzed with the life course theory and the following important findings are discovered: I. The Continuity of the Family Education Measures The continuity of the family education measures can be divided as the continuity of the construction of the promoting system and the continuity of the contents to be promoted. (1) The continuity of the construction of the promotion system of the family education 1. The construction of the administrative system: the parent education consulting centers have been established experimentally since 1986 and they were continued till 2003. After 2003, the family education centers were established successively in each county and each city as the secondary entities according to the law. 2. The promotion and consulting activities: The passive way of promotion was adopted in family education before 1986. It turned to the active way at the learning family stage in 1999. 3. The training of the professional personnel and volunteers: It is performed continuously for all the three stages. 4. The promotion organization: It starts from the parent education stage in the beginning phase to the complete promotion network which is developed by the school and combines the social education system, the school system, non-government organizations and the media. 5. The development of the teaching materials: It starts from the lack of teaching materials in the promotion stage of the parent education to a large amount of the development in the learning family education stage and continues so far. 6. Legislation: The Family Education Law began to be drawn up at the parent education stage and was legislated at the learning family stage. The relevant sub laws have been announced continuously at the law-based and the professionalization of family education. 7. The evaluation: The individual interview and evaluation of the family education that was made from the parent education promotion stage has been included in the general evaluation of the educational system after being legislated and was used to praise the personnel and groups for the family education actively. (2) The Continuity of the Promotion Contents of the Family Education: it has focused on the promotion of “parent education” for more than 20 years since 1986. The “marriage education” was the secondary topic for the promotion as well. Other contents were also promoted continuously and the relevant family education works were conducted with the view to the social phenomena, such as the foreign spouses, the aging of population, etc. II. The Historical and Geographical factors that Influences the Family Education (1) The Influence by the Historical Background: The formation and promotion of the family education measures were influenced by teenager’s crime, the education reform, the international year of family and the increase of the number of foreign spouses. (2) The Geographical Factor: The adjustment of the service network, the activities of the courses, and the depth of the contents were continuously promoted according to the influences of the geological structure, the population structure and the industrial structure. III. The Pushing Hands for the Development of Family Education: The important pushing hands for the development of family education include the legislators for their policies and funds, the professors in the university for their academic expertise, the non-governmental personnel for their strength of non-government organizations, the officers of the administrative departments in the central and local government for their providing of resources, the full-time and volunteers in the center of each county and each city for their promotion of family education, etc. (1) The Choice of the Pushing Hands: The pushing hands chose the actions such as the promotion of the family education, the establishment of the parental education consulting centers, the promotion of the “Legislation” of family education and the “Certification” of the family education professionals, the planning of future works according to the “Life Course” viewpoint, and the promotion of the cultural education for “New Immigrants”. (2) The Compromise of the Pushing Hands: The compromises of the promotion works were the shortage of funds, the limitation by the central government for the way of promotion, and the negotiation that was required for the legislation process for the establishment of the secondary entities in the family education centers. IV. The Timing for the Promotion of Family Education: The timing for the promotion of family education was brought up by teenager’s crime. The timing for the promotion of the learning family was brought up by the trends of whole-life learning and the learning organization. The timing of the “legislation of the family education law” was brought up by the cooperation among the government, the non-government organizations and the academics. V. The links between the family education and life: The links were categorizes as the human part and the organizational part. For the human part, the officers of the government department have great influences on the promotion works; the more support from the officers of the government department, the easier the promotion of the family education can be performed. The links between the central government department and the local promotion systems for the family education focused mainly on the meetings and joint reports. In the summary of this study, suggestions are provided for the entire viewpoint of the development of family education, the viewpoint of the social background and geographical positions, the viewpoint of the professional human resources for the promotion of the family education, the viewpoint for the grasp of the timing of the promotion and the links among the promotion systems in the entire country. Keyword:
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