Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/87144
Title: 國小教師團隊發展創意教學運作模式之研究
Creative Teaching Development in Teacher Team of Elementary School
Authors: 洪久賢
Jeou-Shyan Horng, PhD.
羅幼蓮
Yu-lein Lo
Keywords: 教師團隊
創意教學
自發性教師團隊
行政組成教師團隊
teacher team work
creative teaching
spontaneous teacher team
administrative teacher team
Issue Date: 2005
Abstract: 國小教師團隊發展創意教學運作模式之研究 摘要 本研究旨在了解國小教師團隊發展創意教學的歷程,分析自發性教師團隊與行政組成教師團隊發展創意教學的發展歷程與運作模式,進一步比較其中的差異情形,並針對影響教師團隊發展創意教學的相關條件進行分析。 本研究以行動研究法,實踐國小教師團隊發展創意教學之理論與實務,型塑運作模式;其中進行兩階段不同的團隊模式:第一年以自發性教師團隊為研究主體,研發綜合活動領域創意教學課程;第二年是以學校行政單位組織教師團隊,發展跨領域創意教學課程。 依據本研究的目的,歸納研究的發現與結果如下: 一、自發性教師團隊發展創意教學的歷程與影響 (一) 自我導向的教師團隊。 (二) 成員共同建構團隊知識系統、目的系統與心理支持系統。 (三) 教師團隊的發展歷程:教師團隊歷經「形成期」、「建立期」、「發展期」、「衝突期」與「成效期」;教師團隊的發展歷程中,初期形成的磨合與接近末期的衝突期是團隊的考驗,其中「時間」與「教師團隊的獎賞制度」是團隊面臨的最大挑戰。 (四) 總和大於個別總數的團隊運作模式:為「雁行團隊」的最佳模式。 (五) 對於學校文化的影響:營造樂於經驗分享的校園文化,同時促進具有創意風氣的校園氣氛,皆為正向的影響,但是在初期易產生次文化團體的負面影響。 二、行政組成教師團隊發展創意教學的歷程與影響 (一)規劃之團隊。 (二)成員態度決定團隊成效:依團隊成員態度可分為「獨立領導者」、「強力推動者」、「積極參與者」、「消極嘗試者」、「冷眼觀望者」與「局外人」;結果積極參與者順利完成創意課程,並獲得肯定。 (三)行政整合人力資源之策略,發展全校創意課程與校務: 1.組織「課程發展委員會」,規劃本位課程藍圖,協助團隊設計創意教學課程主題方向,提供團隊目的系統的支持。 2.行政設定團隊目標,分組之後由各組教師進行課程研發,提供成員專業自主空間與決策模式。 3.規劃專業成長的機會與時間,提供教師知識系統的支持,充實教師創意教學專業知能。 4.集中教學研討時間,可以讓團隊成員充分討論與反思,避免時間零散。 5.協助教師參與研習與進修等機會,建立課程發展諮詢管道與情感支持。 6.安排教師資訊與數位媒體應用知能的研習,幫助團隊教師教學歷程保留與存取、以利紀錄與回顧,得以協助思考課程意義。 7.提供教學相關資源與人力的支援,包括學校、社區、社會的各項支援與人力。 8.實施彈性課表與協同教學的安排,以利統整課程的進行。 (四)教師團隊發展的歷程:歷經「形成期」、「建立期」、「發展期」與「成效期」等階段,衝突皆持續存在;衝突型塑團隊的合作機制,其中有教師對行政領導的不滿與教師團隊成員間的衝突。 (五)營造共榮共存的學校文化 三、兩種不同模式的教師團隊之互動情形,除上述不同情形之外,在成員參與動機方面,自發性教師團隊主要為內在動機,而行政組成教師團隊為外在動機之使然;在成員的選擇方面,前者為自願參與,後者為被迫參加;在工作坊的功能方面,前者為直接支持,後者為間接支援;在領導者領導模式方面,前者為民主扁平式彈性領導,後者為半民主式的階層領導;團隊激盪效能方面,前者為整體搭配的團隊,後者為整體搭配不良的團隊。 四、影響教師團隊發展創意教學的條件,包括學校環境脈絡、教師團隊的成員特質、教師團隊的團隊領導、教師團隊之知識系統、教師團隊之目的系統、教師團隊的心理支持系統與團隊之產出。 七個教師團隊發展的條件,在團隊發展的過程中,具有相互影響與互為輔助的功能,同時引發團隊動力造就團隊行為,完成團隊任務。 根據研究結果,對現場教師、縣市政府教育局與學校行政單位、師資培育單位與學術研究機構,提出具體建議,並對研究進行省思,提出後續研究之建議。
This research aims to understand the development of creative teaching in teacher team of elementary school, to examine the development process and operational patterns of the spontaneous teacher team and teams formed by administrative arrangements in developing creative teaching, to probe into the differences between these two types of team and to analyze the relevant conditions that affect the development of creative teaching for teacher team. Action research methodology was employed to gain an insight into the theory and practice of the development of creative teaching in teacher team of elementary school and to form the operational patterns. Two types of teams are identified: one is the spontaneous teams formed by teachers voluntarily in order to develop comprehensive activities for creative teaching curriculum and another is the teacher teams formed by administrative arrangements in order to develop cross-disciplinary creative teaching curriculum. Based on the purpose of this research, the following major findings as follows: 1. Development& impacts of creative teaching development from spontaneous teacher teams. (1)Form self-oriented teacher teams. (2)The collective efforts to construct a team knowledge system, purpose system and psychological support system. (3)The development process of the teacher teams comes in the stages of formation, establishment, collisions and effects. Throughout the course of development, the frictions during the initial formation and the conflicts toward the end of the process pose great challenges. Among them, the biggest challenges are “time” and the “incentives system” of the teacher teams. (4)The best model for the Flying Geese Teams is that the sum is bigger than the aggregation of the individuals. (5)It creates a campus culture where experience sharing is appreciated. Meanwhile, it generates positive impacts to the school by instilling creativity. However, negative impacts to the subculture groups are likely at the initial stage. 2. Development& impacts of creative teaching development from teacher teams organized by administrative arrangements (1) Design team. (2) The attitude of the team members decides the effectiveness of the team. The different types of member attitudes are “independent leaders”, “power promoters”, “active participators”, “passive attempters,” “indifferent onlookers” and “outsiders”. In the end, the active participators finished the creative curriculum and were recognized for their achievements. (3) The strategy to integrate human resources and to develop creative curriculum and campus affairs for the whole school: a. To organize a curriculum development committee to map out the blueprint of curriculum for various subjects, to assist the team in designing the subjects and setting the directions of the creative teaching course and to provide systematic support to the team purpose. b. To set up the team goals with administrative arrangements, to allow each team to develop their own curriculum and to provide the autonomy with members to exercise discretions and make decisions. c. To organize the opportunities and schedules for professional developments, to provide systematic support to the teachers’ knowledge and to enhance the competences in creative teaching. d. To consolidate the timeslots for collective teaching reviews to allow the members to fully discuss and reflect the issues, in order to avoid an inefficient use of timeslots scattered around. e. To assist teachers to participate in seminars and trainings and to develop course development channels and emotional support. f. To arrange the study of information technology and digital media applications, to assist the teachers to record the process and retrieve data where necessary, and to help them ponder on the meanings of this curriculum. g. To provide relevant resources and human resources from the school, community and society to support teaching. h. To implement flexible class schedule and collaborate teaching support in order to facilitate the teaching course. (4) During the process of formation, establishment, development and effectiveness, conflicts always remain. The cooperation mechanism of the conflict-based teams includes the conflicts from the teachers toward the administrative leaders and the conflicts between team members. (5) Development of a collaborative, co-dependent campus culture 3. In terms of the above mention differences for the two types of teams, they also differ in participation motivations. It is mainly internal motivations for the spontaneous teams and the external motivations for the administratively arranged teams. In terms of member selections, the former members participate on a willing basis whereas the latter members are forced into the team. In terms of workshop functions, the former members offer direct support whereas the latter members offer indirect support. In terms of the leadership style, the former exhibit a flexible, flat structure whereas the latter is a hierarchical semi-democratic leadership. In terms of team effectiveness, the former is an integrated effort while the latter is a mismatched teamwork. 4. Conditions that impact the teacher teams to develop creative teaching:Campus environments and networks, member characteristics, team leadership, knowledge system, purpose system, psychological support system, team output. The conditions of the team development for the seven teachers’ teams impact and assist each other during the process. Meanwhile, this process triggers the team motivations and in turn, creates the team actions and completes the team missions. Based on the research findings, this paper proposes suggestions for onsite teachers, city and county education authorities, the school administrations, teachers’ training units and academic research organizations. Reflections upon the research findings and the suggestions for follow-up research work are made.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN0889060035%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/87144
Other Identifiers: GN0889060035
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