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A prospective study of dietary intakes and growth development for children from pregnancy to 6 years old
24 hours dietary recall
孩童體重反彈現象方面，分析48位(24位為男生，24位為女生)提供完整1 ~ 6歲體位資料的孩童，體重反彈年齡於3 ~ 5歲定義為「前期體重反彈」，若為6歲以後則為「晚期體重反彈」。幼童6歲時「前期組」之BMI (n=28)顯著大於「晚期組」(n=20)(p < 0.05)；熱量供應營養素攝取狀況在此二組間皆無明顯差異，但1歲時的熱量攝取皆以「前期組」為較高。孩童1歲之哺餵狀況發現，停止哺餵母乳或介入配方奶的時間低於4個月之幼童熱量攝取皆為較高，且「前期組」之熱量攝取亦大於「後期組」，因此證實母乳哺餵及配方奶介入時間的長短對幼童體重反彈具有一定的影響力。
This prospective study described in detail about dietary intakes, growth development and health status for children from birth to 6 years old. We recruited 151 pregnant women from Taipei Municipal Women’s and Children’s Hospital and collected related information for growth and nutritional status of their babies from birth to 6 years old (at birth n=130, at 6 years old n=84). We collected information for dietary intakes, growth and health status of children by questionnaire, including 2-day 24 hours recalls, family background, child lifestyle, health and growth status by telephone interviews. The statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 12.0 and STATA 8.0. With comparison to data from birth to 6 years old, the participation children showed the average weight, height and head circumference lie in normal range on published growth curve in Taiwan. The data showed the significant differences by gender for weight at birth, 1 and 2 years old, and height at birth and 1 year old. The average dietary intakes of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate at 6 years old were 1446 Kcal, 51g, 45g and 209g, respectively. The percentages of total energy from protein, fat and carbohydrate were 14%, 28% and 58%. Most nutrient intakes were increased with age, but vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin B2, vitamin C, calcium and iron intakes were reduced with age. There were significant differences between boys and girls on daily energy and most nutrient intakes between 1 to 6 years old. Rice, noodles and formula are the major sources of energy and most nutrients at 5 and 6 years old. The energy and most nutrients at 6 years old were positively correlated with body weight and BMI at 6 years old; also with 5 to 6 years old wight gain(p<0.05). But the per kilo of energy intake had significant negative relationship with body weight and BMI at 6 years old; also with 5 to 6 years old weight gain(p＜0.01). For the adult-style diet, the weight and BMI at 6 years old, and also with 5 to 6 years old weight gain had a positive correlations with meat, fish, soybean, egg, vegetable and fruit intakes(p<0.05). The height at 6 years old had significant positive relationships with father’s height; also with father and mother age (p<0.05). Bymultiple regression analysis, these children’s dietary nutrient intakes, especially per kilo of energy had si and carbohydrate intakes, were the best predictors of body weight, height and BMI at 6 years old. Birth height and father’s height also were the best predictors of height at 6 years old. By adiposity rebound analysis(AR), there were 48 subjects in total (24 males and 24 females), offering the information about their body measurement. The children were divided into two groups based on BMI, and characterized as follows: early AR(from 36 but before 60 months), and later AR (after 72 months). These data showed that the comparison of BMI value between early AR (n=28) and later AR (n=20) had a significant statistical difference (P<0.05). At the age of 6 years old, the children in early AR had a higher BMI value than the later AR. The situation of nutrition intake in two groups had no significant difference, but we also observed that the calorie intake of early AR was more than that of later AR at 1 year old. According to the feeding status of one-year-old children, we found that there was an increase of the caloric intake less than 4 months in both groups of children who stopped being breastfed and who started to be fedwith formula milk. Within each group, the intake of calorie in early AR was higher than later AR. Here we proved the adiposity rebound was influenced by duration of breastfeeding and formula milk introduced. In conclusion, our study showed that dietary intake and growth development from birth to 6 years old children were appropriate. Our data showed that besides the influences from parent’s weight and height, children’s dietary intakes are also important factors for the growth from birth to 6 yearsold.
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