Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86563
Title: 土耳其語母語者之華語舌尖前與舌尖後清輔音偏誤分析
Error Analysis in /ts/, /tsʰ/, /s/, /ʈʂ/, /ʈʂʰ/, /ʂ/ of Mandarin Chinese from Native Turkish Speakers
Authors: 曾金金
Tseng, Chin-Chin
劉時諶
Liu, Shih-Chen
Keywords: 華語
土耳其語
舌尖前音
舌尖後音
對比分析
偏誤分析
Mandarin Chinese
Turkish
Alveolar Consonants
Retroflex Consonants
Contrastive Analysis
Error Analysis
Issue Date: 2015
Abstract: 舌尖前音和舌尖後音,一直以來都是外籍學習者於華語語音方面的最大的困難,土耳其語母語者亦不例外。從華語-土耳其語輔音之差異對比觀之,華語塞擦音/擦音類輔音,舌尖部位即分前(/ts/、/tsʰ/、/s/)、後(/ʈʂ/、/ʈʂʰ/、/ʂ/)兩組,然土耳其語亦有以塞擦音/擦音相互對立的輔音音素一組(/dʒ/、/tʃ/、/ʃ/),其構音部位(舌葉)接近但異於華語舌尖音群。因此,華語舌尖部位的六個清輔音音素都可能成為土耳其語母語者的學習障礙。故本語音研究之主軸在於透過觀察土耳其學生於華語/ts/、/tsʰ/、/s/、/ʈʂ/、/ʈʂʰ/、/ʂ/等輔音作為聲母之發音表現。 研究結果指出土耳其學生於華語舌尖前音、舌尖後音的發音偏誤有以下特徵:(1)發音器官的阻塞動作不確實,造成塞擦音與擦音混淆,如:/s/-/tsʰ/;(2)送氣時長不足,造成送氣音與不送氣音混淆,如:/tsʰ/-/ts/、/ʈʂʰ/-/ʈʂ/;(3)舌體位置不正確,造成舌尖前音與舌尖後音混淆,如:/ts/-/ʈʂ/、/tsʰ/-/ʈʂʰ/、/s/-/ʂ/。而根據與土耳其學生訪談的內容顯示,造成這些偏誤特徵的主要根源,一是標註華語語音的書面形式(漢語拼音方案)與母語文字使用相同文字系統(拉丁字母),使學習過程受母語語音干擾;二是華語聲調的鮮明特色誘引學習者過度強調而錯誤模仿,連帶影響輔音的實際音值。 最後,筆者根據研究結果提出基於學習者語言能力的教學建議:自學習者母語具備的輔音/s/出發,教學者僅演示聲母音段,並配合語音對比的教學方式,循序調整發音控制變項(阻塞由無而有送氣由長而短舌位由前而後),以達到降低發音困難的學習成效。
Alveolar and retroflex consonants have always been the major difficulty for foreign students learning the pronunciation of Mandarin Chinese; native Turkish speakers are no exception. Based on the contrastive analysis between Mandarin and Turkish consonants, all fricative and affricate consonants of Mandarin are divided into alveolar consonants (/ts/, /tsʰ/, /s/) and retroflex consonants (/ʈʂ/, /ʈʂʰ/, /ʂ/), while there is only one group of fricative-affricative contrast in Turkish: palate-alveolar consonants (/dʒ/, /tʃ/, /ʃ/). However, the places of articulation of these consonants are close to each other but they are individually different in articulations and in sonic traits. The result of this research points out the following features existing in the false articulation of Turkish learners: 1) They lack occlusive motion in speech organs which confounds affricates with fricatives. (/s/ vs. /tsʰ/) 2) The insufficiency of aspiration that confuses the aspirated consonants with those of non-aspirated ones. (/tsʰ/ vs. /ts/; /ʈʂʰ/ vs. /ʈʂ/) 3) The inappropriate position of tongue tip that causes the obscurity of alveolar and retroflex consonants. (/ts/ vs. /ʈʂ/; /tsʰ/ vs. /ʈʂʰ/; /s/ vs. /ʂ/) According to the interview with Turkish learners, the similar written form for Pinyin and Turkish language (both based Latin alphabet) and their exaggerating imitation of the tones are indicated to be the major accounts for the inaccurate articulation. Based on the result, I propose some instructions conforming to learners’ language ability; that is, starting with a phoneme that already exists in their native language - /s/. With demonstrations of the distinction between these consonants as the initials of every Mandarin syllable, teachers may gradually adjust the variables of articulation by adding occlusion first (making /s/ into [tsʰ]), then to shorten the aspiration (making /tsʰ/ into [ts]), and last to shift the tongue tip backwards (changing /s/, /tsʰ/, /ts/ into [ʂ], [ʈʂʰ], [ʈʂ]). These methods should effectively reduce the difficulties in acquiring an accurate articulation of these Mandarin consonants.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN0699800021%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86563
Other Identifiers: GN0699800021
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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