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Title: 中英電視訪談節目中的反問句:關聯理論的認知分析
Rhetorical Questions in Talk Shows: A Cognitive Approach based on Relevance Theory
Authors: 謝佳玲
Keywords: 反問句
rhetorical question
Relevance Theory
cognition process
ostensive-inferential process
Issue Date: 2015
Abstract: 語言的產出與解讀並非一對一的關係,同一句話可以對應到的解讀有很多,反問句在形式上是疑問句,在功能上卻能傳遞發話者的情緒。受話者在解讀時需要釐清發話者在反問句中所傳遞的真實內容,並且依照發話者的期待給予合適的回應。因此分析反問句不能僅限於討論句型本身,應該從語境著手,本文運用關聯理論(Relevance Theory)的核心模式「明示─推理」(ostensive-inferential process)分析反問句(rhetorical question)與上下文的制約關係,期望能發現反問句的言談模式。 前人研究多以白話小說為語料,分析反問句的形式、語意及功能,本文希望能從不同的媒體做為語料來源,從中英訪談節目收集中英語料共200筆。選用訪談節目的理由為最接近日常生活的對話模式,訪談節目是一種半制式化(semi-institutional)的言談,主持人與來賓不需要按照一問一答的話論順序,交際雙方有較多的自由討論不同的主題。這種訪談節目的特色為具有自發性及活力感(Tolson, 2006),可做為觀察母語者語料的媒體。 本文將反問句的上文、反問句以及回應視為一個完整的言談結構,因此分析反問句需要由這三方面同時探討,首先討論反問句的主題,兼談主題中有助於判斷發話者情緒的語言表現。反問句主題分為私人生活、事業表現、他人消息以及現場語境四種。其次討論反問句形式與功能,形式限定為特指問句以及是非問句,其功能分為表達反駁以及尋求認同。最後是反問句的回應則依據前人的分類加以修正後分為「實際答案」、「表面答案」兩類。「實際答案」類就是針對反問句的隱含意義給予回應;「表面答案」類是針對反問句的疑問句形式給予回應。 研究結果顯示反問句的上下文制約具有跨語言的相似性,典型的反問句言談模式是「以特指問句表達反駁得到實際答案」,中英母語者討論私人生活、事業表現兩主題皆偏好使用此組言談模式;現場語境與他人消息可視為次要主題,在私人生活與事業表現兩種主題交替出現,因此現場主題與他人消息出現筆數較少,且反問句的功能傾向尋求認同。由研究結果得出的言談模式可以運用於教學中,讓英語學習者觀察中文母語者在不同主題下使用反問句言談情況再利用自身語言的經驗,進行後設認知學習。
The use of language and its meaning do not always correlate. Under given context, speech can convey various meanings to the addressee. Conversational rules have been derived from verbal interaction by previous researchers, the “Cooperative Principle” described by Grice (1975) being one of the most frequently cited. However, Grice’s principle has certain limits when applied on the process of language production and comprehension. Therefore, Relevance Theory, which is based on psychological theory, could provide a new perspective to analyzing conversation. In this research, Relevance Theory is used to explain why the speakers use rhetorical questions. “Ostensive-inferential Process”, described by the Relevance Theory, divides a conversation into two parts: “ostensive behavior”, where the addresser uses different forms of language to arouse the addressee’s attention; and “inferential process”, in which the addressee needs to combine new information with cognitive context to understand the underlying implication of the sentences. This study analyzes 200 rhetorical questions used in Chinese and English talk shows. Talk shows were chosen as resource data, as they share many common features with daily conversation - both are lively and come from spontaneous talks (Tolson, 2006). The aim of the study is to describe discursive features of rhetorical questions in Chinese and English. Results show that both Chinese and English share four identical features. First, native speakers of both languages prefer to use “past experience” as the context of rhetorical questions, and tend to use “modest tone” in the context. Second, “wh-questions” is preferred to “yes-no questions”. Third, speakers use rhetorical questions to express contradiction rather than seek agreement. Last, in response to rhetorical questions, speakers tend to use “reply” instead of “answer”. Based on results, pedagogical implications are derived.
Other Identifiers: GN0698800153
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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