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A Study of the Current State and Influential Factors of Chinese Teaching in Secondary Schools in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand
本研究將清萊府漢語教育的影響因素總結為十項：1)中學開設漢語課是為了響應泰國教育部推動漢語教育的政策，有些學校在不具備的情況下開課；2)學校將漢語課納入為「國際標準學校計畫」中的第二語言課程，但是該課程時數較少，師資人力也不足；3)各校目前並未積極使用清萊府漢語課程大綱與校材；4)督學缺乏漢語知識，使推動漢語教育及教師督導方面不夠完善；5)各校漢語課程時數有差異；6)泰籍教師和母語者教師的分配比例不均及變動頻繁；7) 泰國教育部及清萊府推出《體驗漢語》及《漢語教程》是為了「統一」教材，但各校有教材選擇權，學校使用的教材仍五花八門；8)學生不積極求學行為，不利於漢語教育的發展；9)學校缺乏校學資源，而且老師不會利用教學資源在語言課堂上，而常用於課外活動，對學生的幫助不大；10) 泰國及清萊府在學生漢語學習的能力評量仍缺乏一定的標準。|
This paper investigates the current state of Chinese language education in secondary schools in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand, with the goal of promoting understanding of the development of Chinese language education in Chiang Rai. The author conducted an analysis of relevant literature, interviews with teachers and surveys of administrative staff and students, in order to determine what factors have influenced Chinese language education in Chiang Rai. The author hopes this study can serve as a reference for the development of Chinese language education in Chiang Rai and elsewhere. The author found that the Education Service Area Office developed a Chinese language curriculum and teaching materials for Chiang Rai with the goal of standardizing Chinese teaching throughout the province. However, many schools have not yet formally adopted either the curriculum or the materials that had been developed, and have thus far only used content that relates to Chiang Rai. Furthermore, the teaching methods used by many teachers in Chiang Rai fail to focus students’ attention, and many teachers are overly reliant on textbooks. However, students prefer that teachers use multimedia and hope that the learning process could be made more relaxing and pleasant. Although students like Chinese and understand the benefits of learning it, they retain a passive attitude towards their studies. Teaching resources are also a major issue: some schools offer a variety of Chinese language courses, but still lack of teaching materials. Teachers rarely use all the facilities schools offer, and multimedia resources do not meet students’ and teachers’ needs. Finally, student assessment does not balance listening, speaking, reading and writing; instead the Ministry of Education’s exams focus mainly on reading and writing, with little attention paid to listening and speaking. There are currently no specific standards for learning Chinese in Thailand. The author found a total of ten factors that influenced Chinese education in Chiang Rai Province: 1) Secondary schools have started Chinese language courses in order to comply with the policies of Thailand’s Ministry of Education. Some of these schools started Chinese courses despite lacking the necessary resources. 2) Schools integrated Chinese classes into the World-Class Standard School Plan’s second language program, but these courses provide few course hours, and there is a dearth of qualified teachers. 3) Schools have not actively implemented Chiang Rai Province’s Chinese curriculum or teaching materials. 4) Supervisors lack knowledge of Chinese, which is detrimental to the promotion of Chinese learning and the supervision of Chinese teachers. 5) Chinese courses’ course hours vary from school to school. 6) Thai teachers and native language teachers are not evenly distributed between schools, and are frequently transferred. 7) The Thai Ministry of Education and the Chiang Rai provincial government promote “Experience Chinese” and “Chinese Language Course” as a set of “unified” teaching materials, but schools have the right to choose their own materials, so in fact a wide variety of materials are used throughout the province. 8) Students do not actively seek opportunities to study, thereby harming the development of Chinese education. 9) Schools lack resources, and teachers often use the resources available to them in extracurricular activities rather than in their classes, which is of relatively little help to students. 10) Thailand and Chiang Rai Province still lack clear Chinese language assessment standards.
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