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Titel: 現代漢語拒絕言語行為之中介語分析-以日籍學習者為例
An Interlanguage Pragmatic Study Of Refusals–Japanese Learners of Chinese
Autoren: 曾金金老師
Stichwörter: 中介語
Japanese learners
Chinese-Japanese culture
Speech acts
Erscheinungsdatum: 2011
Zusammenfassung: 日籍漢語學習者與漢語母語者溝通時,即便是中級或高級學習者也常因誤解對方真正的意圖,而感受到將自己真正的想法傳達給對方的困難性,其原因不僅僅是漢語發音或是詞彙習得之類的障礙,更多時候是由於學習者無法掌握該語言的深層知識即言語行為所造成的。另外,在溝通進行的過程當中,說話者使用委婉表達也會增加學習者理解的困難度。 本文根據Chen, Ye& Zhang (1995)的定義,將拒絕言語行為定義為「說話者否定進行對方所提出的行為」,Beebe at al. (1990)將拒絕言語行為細分為以下四種情境之拒絕:邀請(invitations)、請求(requests)、提供(offers)以及建議(suggestions)。本文以日籍漢語學習者、台灣漢語母語者以及日語母語者為研究對象,並採用語言完成測驗問卷(Discourse Completion Task)收集資料,藉由各組拒絕言語行為與語言形式差異的分析,探討日籍漢語學習者中介語的主要特徵。 研究結果顯示,說話對象為教師(有權勢差距)時較說話對象為同學(無權勢差距)時的拒絕更難習得,又因為無法完全掌握委婉說法,而轉向使用較直接拒絕表達之學習者的比例較高。另外,請求與提供此兩種情境,一般而言,較難拒絕,學習者在學習漢語的過程中較少接觸此類情境,因此容易出現語用遷移。本研究發現,初、中、高級學習者的拒絕言語行為皆有語用遷移,然而在筆者分析台灣地區及日本所使用的華語教材之後發現,教材裡面幾乎不存在有關拒絕主題的課文或討論。因此筆者希望以本研究做為開端,期許在未來能夠幫助日籍漢語學習者不失禮並有效地運用漢語拒絕言語行為。
When native Japanese speakers communicate with Chinese native speakers, what is the main obstacle causing misunderstandings between them? Even the intermediate or advanced level Chinese learners would often have hard time expressing their real intentions or misunderstand interlocutors’ real intentions. The reasons causing such embarrassment not only arise from Chinese learners’ mispronunciation or word choices, more often, it is due to not be able to grasp the form and meaning of speech acts. Especially when native speakers use indirect speech acts which makes it even harder to understand what the interlocutors’ real intention. According to Chen, Ye& Zhang (1995), refusals are defined as a speech act which speakers deny to obey the actions demanded by the interlocutor. Beebe at al. (1990) divides refusals into four categories in terms of situations: invitation, request, offer and suggestion. The participants of this research are Japanese learners of Chinese, Chinese native speakers and Japanese native speakers. Through analyzing speech acts among the three groups, we want to identify the characteristics held in the interlanguage. We use Discourse Completion Task (DCT) to elicit refusals. Result of the study indicates it is more difficult to refuse teachers’ requests than to refuse the classmates’, and when it comes to the speech formulas, many of the participants use direct performance due to their lack of sufficient capability of commending the correct forms of polite sentences. Furthermore, according to the questionnaire conducted in this research, many Japanese learners of Chinese say it is most difficult to refuse requests and offers from the interlocutors, and so we found the existence of pragmatic transfer in interlanguage of Japanese learners. Although pragmatic transfer was found in advanced level learners, after referring current Chinese textbooks, we found that throughout all the contents there is no such a unit teaching Chinese learners how to react adequately when they encounter people with different social status. Through this research, I hope it can make a contribution to Japanese learners of Chinese acquiring Chinese refusals.
Sonstige Kennungen: GN0697800364
Enthalten in den Sammlungen:學位論文

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