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Title: 現代漢語「並」的語義、篇章、語用分析及其教學應用
A Semantic, Discourse and Pragmatic Analysis of the Modern Chinese Lexeme Bing with Pedagogical Application
Authors: 陳俊光
Chen, Fred Jyun-gwang
Lin, Yinlien
evaluative modality
Issue Date: 2011
Abstract: 本文根據Halliday(1985,1994)的語言後設功能「概念、篇章、人際」檢視「並」在語義、篇章及語用的功能。「並」的歷時演變符合語法化的存變、歧變、保持及滯後原則,「並」的字源義「竝」(表「兩人並立」)歷經語法化後仍殘留原義。本文根據現代漢語工具書及語料庫驗證,釐析出現代漢語「並」的核心語義為「聚列」。在不同語境,「聚列」為原義「合併」殘留之隱喻義,另透過泛化、推理機制有「概括陳列」義,後接否定的「並」有「反預設」義,可標示事件本身和心理預期的顯隱並呈性,在現代漢語中以「並」的「遞進」義最為突顯。在語法方面,連詞「並」後接肯定形式,連詞「並」後的主語省略為一隱主語,另發現連詞「並」亦可出現在主語之後的句法位置。 在篇章層面,連詞「並」主導同極值的順接,前後語義關係以正添加為主。連詞「並」可擔任前後景分界點。此外,副詞「並」的關聯詞搭配以「但……並不……」、「並不……而……」的出現率較高。 在人際層面的語用功能以情態副詞「並」後接否定形式所表示的反預設功能為主。在會話方面,「並」後接否定形式具有會話修正功能,而此種修正可由說話者或受話者發起。「並」的情態符合評價情態下的心願系統與預料系統之背離用法。「並」後接否定形式在語用上符合關聯理論,需靠語境中顯性或隱性預設來推導「並」的反預設內容。在語用上,「並」的反預設出現在當説話者認爲所說的話可能與聽話者的預設有所不同時,具有釐清說話者觀點的功能。 基於上述不同層面檢視,本文提出教學建議和教學活動設計,供華語教學參考。
This paper presents an analysis of the semantic, discourse and pragmatic functions (corresponding to Halliday’s metafunctions (1985, 1994) -- ideational, interpersonal and textual) of the Chinese lexeme bing with possible applications to language pedagogy. First, the lexeme bing (並) is inspected from both diachronic and synchronic perspectives. Diachronically, the grammaticalization of bing can be explained by way of the following mechanisms: clines/cycles, divergence, persistence and inflection-lag. Analysis of its grammaticalization shows that the original sense of the Chinese character 竝, meaning ‘to stand side by side,’ remains intact while several related meanings having grammatical function have evolved from it. Next, the semantic meanings of bing in modern Chinese are analyzed from a synchronic perspective, the core of which is found to be ju-lie 聚列, meaning 'to congregate'. The most frequent use of bing as a conjunction is to connect two affirmative clauses. In this case, bing appears in the syntactic slot before the subject of the second clause whereupon that subject is then deleted. It was found in this study that when bing acts as a conjunction, it takes a different syntactic position. That is, it appears after the subject and connects two sentences of differing subjects. When bing used as an adverb, however, its primary function is to introduce a negation. On the textual level, bing can be the figure-ground boundary point. Its main cohesive function is extension. Furthermore, when collocating with dan 但 or er 而, its cohesive range can be extended to include several clauses or sentences. The functions of bing when used as a modality adverb in its inverse form are investigated on the interpersonal level. Here, bing reveals the presupposition or wish of the speaker to express a meaning where sentence meaning and the speaker’s intention are divergent. As an adverb, bing appearing before a negation can contradict the presupposition triggered by the context. It also seems to function actively on the conversational level as a means of discourse repair or correction. Conversational repair initiated by either the speaker or the listener is observed. When acting as adverb, bing appearing before a negation shows the speaker's subjectivity on a pragmatic level by way of showing the implicative conunter-persupposition to clarify the speaker’s attitude. Lastly, some suggestions and teaching activities, based on the results of the multi-level linguistic analysis presented, are offered in hopes of contributing to the advancement of Chinese language pedagogy.
Other Identifiers: GN0697800132
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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