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Title: 華語說服語言語意、語用、語篇分析研究
An Analytical Semantics, Pragmatics and Discourse Research on Mandarin Chinese Persuasive Language
Authors: 謝佳玲
Keywords: 說服
Speech Act
Chinese Teaching
Issue Date: 2011
Abstract: 溝通為人類使用語言的目的。而語言的功能不僅為傳遞訊息,亦是表達個人態度與立場的重要途徑。說服即是建立於傳訊與表態語言作用的溝通理論,且前人豐富文獻已由各學門觀點探究說服訊息的來源、媒介、組成、結構等要素,唯華語說服語言的研究仍顯不足。說服訊息的語言使用牽涉說服者文化的社會規約,亦受到情境中說服對象之固有訊息量與意願強弱度等變因影響,華語學習者更可能因其語言能力或文化感知的差異,遭遇表述或理解華語說服訊息的困境。 為增補文獻缺乏,本研究採用語篇補全測試蒐集華語母語者與華語學習者的說服訊息,以前人語意情態、語用策略、語篇後設等理論架構分析華語說服訊息中的類別、組成、情態、策略與銜接標記。研究除歸納華語說服訊息中的語言現象與通則之外,亦將統計結果對比說服對象持有態度變因,探討母語者依循情境差異而調整的說服訊息與學習者說服語言表現特徵。 研究結果揭示,華語說服者依序以認知、義務、動力、評價情態作為表態說服立場的手段,可見情態語意法則的確信度、主客觀、必要性、條件與對比皆左右情態的使用與分布。說服立論程序可歸納為指示行為、證據知識、理論闡釋、辯證對比與情感訴求及數項次類。其中建議與勸告、論說與損益、反駁與掩飾等皆為常用以提供指導、支援、推論與反證之說服策略,而情感訴求的究責或施壓,則以修辭手段達成說服目的。後設論述機制中的互動類連接與架構標記得以引導對方理解說服思維,但訊息精簡而少有參照、示證與註解標記。各類交互後設論述的高頻運用為說服者顧及對方觀感的佐證。 說服對象固有訊息與意願偏好區辨不同說服目的且須搭配不同情態、策略與後設論述的組合。此外,學習者語言能力為箝制其訊息構成的關鍵因素,初中級或中高級者說服與表現迥異且均可能遭遇學習難點。因此,融入說服語用概念與互動分組活動的華語說服協商教學可設置於教學提案之中。
Language conveys information and implies speakers’ attitudes, thereby enabling them to influence others. Linguistic acts of persuasion have received considerable attention from various disciplines. However, there has not yet been much research in Mandarin Chinese persuasive messages. This study investigates the semantic, pramgatic and discourse elements of persuasive language, contrasts its contextual variables and observes interlanguages of Mandarin learners, then concludes with a description of pedagogical implication. The results of discourse completion tasks suggest that Mandarin persuaders apply epistemic, deontic and dynamic modality with attempts of expressing certainty, subjectivity, responsibility and evaluation in proposition. In addition, persuasive argumentations can be divided into direction, information, illustration, contradiction, affective appeal and several subcategories. Strategies such as suggesting/advising, dissertating/judging, and refuting/questioning are tactics of providing directives, support, inference and counterargument. Activation of commitment and pressure accomplish convincing in a rhetoric way. In metadiscourse, transition and frame markers are frequently used for facilitating cohesion and organization. Attitude and engagement markers indicate persuaders’ judgment and offer guidance of an action. Learned message and the preferences of interlocutors differentiate persuasion acts, and each purpose requires collocation of modality, strategies and metadiscourse. Additionally, language competence is crucial factor which affects learners’ ability to create persuasive messages in Mandarin. Pragmatic concepts and interactivities for persuasion can be included in language instruction.
Other Identifiers: GN0697800027
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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